(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Jimmy Santiago Baca’s collection Working in the Dark: Reflections of a Poet in the Barrio is a blunt and honest gathering of essays, journal entries, and poetry that describe some of the more poignant incidents in a long journey that Baca has made from a “troubled and impoverished Chicano family” to a position of prominence as a widely admired poet. Baca’s subject as a writer is the life and history of Albuquerque’s South Valley. Baca passionately explores the crucial episodes in a process of self-growth and self-discovery beginning with his most desperate moments as an empty, powerless, inarticulate young man, through an expanding series of revelations about life and language in prison, and ending with his eventual construction of a self based on his relationships to the land, his family, and his identity as a “detribalized Apache” and Chicano artist.

The heart of the book is the fourth section, “Chicanismo: Destiny and Destinations.” After covering his discovery in prison of the redemptive powers of language, and his sense of a loss of Chicano culture in an Anglo world, Baca recalls the one positive feature of his youth: the three years he spent in the home of his grandparents before he was five. This memory kept a dim vision alive through the years when Baca began to realize that “none of what I did was who I was.” In the first part of the “Chicanismo” section, Baca delivers a systematic critique of the methods used...

(The entire section is 464 words.)


(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Suggested Readings

Olivares, Julian. “Two Contemporary Chicano Verse Chronicles.” American Review 16 (Fall-Winter, 1988): 214-231.

Rector, Liam. “The Documentary of What Is.” Hudson Review 41 (Summer, 1989): 393-400.