Places Discussed

Werle house

Werle house. Home of the wealthy industrialist Haakon Werle in which the play opens. Shaded lamps in its rich study cast a greenish glow, giving the illusion of a forest or seascape setting. Werle’s former partner, Old Ekdal, begs release from a locked office, symbolizing his earlier imprisonment. The dim study screens him and allows others to ignore him. A brilliant inner room and other chambers suggest depth of place and characters.

Ekdal house

Ekdal house. Shabby home of the Ekdal family in which the play’s second act is set at night. A single lamp in the set suggests Old Ekdal’s poverty, stressing the contrast with Werle’s brilliantly lighted home.

Old Ekdal spends most of his time in a garret, in which he keeps a curious assortment of animals. He pretends that the garret with its old Christmas trees is a forest like the one in which he hunted as a young man. The ambiguous attic place suggests freedom but is actually a prison to the animals. Although the family bases its life primarily on self-deception and illusion, the Ekdal home is a happy one.

When Gregers visits the house to see his friend Hjalmar Ekdal, he is appalled by its condition and vows to reveal the truth to the Ekdals. To that end, he rents a room in the house. When he smokes up the house, pours water into the stove, and makes the floor a “wet pigsty,” the disaster symbolizes the family disruption caused by Gregers’s revealing the truth. The subsequent darkness of the place symbolizes melancholy; darkness and sadness remain, despite a lighted lamp with no shade. Hedvig believes that in daylight (symbolizing truth and happiness) their place (family) will again be stable. When he threatens to leave, Gina says they need an attic place (illusion) for happiness. This attic place, however, later brings grief—not happiness. Gregers’s closing metaphor for himself uses place: He is the thirteenth place at a table and a source of unrest.

Historical Context

Union With Sweden and the Constitution
Since 1536, Norway had been a province of Denmark, but in the early 1800s, Sweden...

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Literary Style

The wild duck is the foremost symbol Ibsen employs. The wild duck has come to live with the family after having been...

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Compare and Contrast

1880: The second half of the 19th century is an age of literary greatness in Norway. Along with Ibsen, Bjornstjerne Bjornson was a...

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Topics for Further Study

Imagine that Hedvig had only injured herself, not killed herself. How do you think the family would react? Do you think Hjalmar would change...

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What Do I Read Next?

Ibsen's A Doll's House was first published in 1879 and performed the same year. The play centers on the Helmer family. When an...

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Bibliography and Further Reading

Brustein, Robert, review of The Wild Duck, in The New Republic, April 14, 1986, p. 27.


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(Great Characters in Literature)

Caputi, Anthony, ed. Eight Modern Plays. 2d ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991. Dounia B. Christiani’s translation of The Wild Duck is supplemented with excerpts from Ibsen’s letters and speeches and two chapters from books by M. C. Bradbrook and Dorothea Krook. Bradbook’s contribution explains how the play works on different levels simultaneously, and Krook remarks on the subtlety of Ibsen’s theme of self-deception. Caputi’s foreword provides an excellent introduction to Ibsen and twentieth century drama.

Clurman, Harold. Ibsen. New York: Macmillan, 1977. An introductory study that provides the general reader with...

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