White Fragility Summary

White Fragility is a nonfiction book by sociologist Robin DiAngelo that examines how white people react to discussions of race, racism, and ongoing white supremacy.

  • Several factors keep white people unaware of their complicity in racism, including the notion of individuality, US history, the “white racial frame,” “racial silence,” and the “good/bad binary.”
  • White people’s reactions to “racial triggers,” such as when others call them out for racism, are often harmful to people of color.
  • White fragility, DiAngelo argues, is one of the largest barriers to an actively anti-racist future.


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White Fragility: Why It's So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism is a 2018 book by sociologist Robin DiAngelo. After DiAngelo spent decades learning and teaching about race in academic and organizational settings, she uncovered a pattern in the ways white people react to discussions about race, racism, and white supremacy. (White supremacy is defined as people who are identified as white benefiting from the privileges of racism, such as having more access to jobs, wealth, housing, and safety than people of color.) In short, DiAngelo found that white people in the United States have difficulty confronting their own complicity in systems of racism and prejudice against people of color, particularly Black people. In part, this is because they have been socialized to believe that they are exempt from being identified by their race.

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To begin, DiAngelo discusses the concept of “individualism,” a belief that is foundational to a racist society and that allows white people to believe that their opinions, feelings, and beliefs are purely individual. Therefore, when white people are confronted with race or racism, they believe that they have nothing to do with the structural systems of white supremacy. As a result, they may distance themselves from the conversation in various ways, particularly by becoming defensive.

As DiAngelo goes on to explain, though, white supremacy is threaded through American culture. Beginning with so-called “scientific” justifications for slavery, she examines how pseudoscience allowed white people in power to uphold the status quo—a status quo that is still present today. She goes on to explain the differences between prejudice, in which unfounded assumptions about race are projected onto people from a particular racial group; discrimination, in which one’s actions are affected by their prejudices; and outright racism, in which racial prejudice and discrimination are legally, institutionally, and societally upheld. It is possible for white people to ignore these systems of oppression because of what DiAngelo calls the “white racial frame,” which is an internalized structure of thought that encodes whiteness as the norm and anything else as “other.”

Next, DiAngelo outlines how white people are unaware of racial histories and how this contributes to subtly racist attitudes, such as “color blindness” and “coded” language (for example, terminology like “urban” and “diverse”). These forms of racism allow even white people who see themselves as progressive or liberal to perpetuate racist ideologies in their daily lives, thus harming people of color. Such unconsidered thought and use of language is upheld by “white racial belonging,” an institution from which DiAngelo herself, who is white, has benefited. She discusses how messaging about whiteness and race, continued segregation, and the expectation of “white solidarity” or “racial silence” together allow whiteness to go unchallenged in white spaces, thus intensifying the discomfort white people have when ultimately confronted with issues regarding race.

Another factor that leads to white fragility is what DiAngelo terms the “good/bad binary.” By this logic, it is assumed that all morally “good”...

(The entire section contains 962 words.)

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