(Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction)

Among Conroy's more important themes in this novel are racism and the accompanying prejudice, religion, education, family, isolation, and maturation. Conroy the character, usually called Pat, embarks upon a two-fold quest. The first is that of achieving his own destiny, one about which he has most definite ideas. The second is the liberation of the black island children, and by extension, of their families, from the white-instituted illiteracy which binds them to their past as surely as the chains of slavery did their forefathers. The prejudice he must fight to reach his goals comes in several different forms. The school superintendent, Dr. Henry Piedmont, represents the white establishment in its purest and most deadly form. While outwardly showing an interest in Conroy and his various projects at the island school, he will not allow challenge to his established administrative procedures. Black education differs from white education, and such differences must not be challenged. Good or bad, the system remains sacrosanct.

More insidious is the prejudice of the blacks themselves. While Pat eventually gains the trust of the children and their families, he remains powerless to correct the self-silencing they exhibit. Theirs is an inheritance of well-versed subservience to the whites. They have learned not to question or criticize white policy if they want to be left alone to structure their black society as they please. As Conroy states, "The people of the island have changed very little since the Emancipation Proclamation." The children have been taught by one of their own, Mrs. Brown, a black school teacher, that they are ignorant, even retarded. She tells Pat upon first meeting him, "These people don't want to better themselves."

The white couple who "oversee" the island, the Stones, offer the perfect example of stereotypical Southern prejudice. Mr. Stone stands ready to shoot any "niggers" or "long hair liberals" who threaten the island's security. He exhibits the curious dichotomy of willingness to aid Conroy as a fellow white, but a complete lack of sympathy toward Conroy's attempts to help the island's black inhabitants.

Conroy fills in his background for the reader, stating, "I was getting tired of my own innocence." He tells of teaching in 1968 at the Beaufort High School in 1968 when Martin Luther King was murdered. Several black girls approach him, demanding that Conroy apologize to them for King's death. Hearing the young blacks asking why whites cannot treat them "right" and "love us like Jesus taught," followed by threats to burn the city, Pat is seized by "the shadow that hovered over me, white guilt." He feels his teaching at the island school, a position which no other white teacher will consider, might serve to relieve him of that shadow.

As the story, and his relationship with the school children, develops, Pat discovers he must lose the selfish side of...

(The entire section is 1191 words.)