The poetic/literary devices (such as tone, imagery, metaphor, simile, alliteration, hyperbole and prefix or suffix) of the poem “I Hear America Singing” by Walt Whitman include:
This poem is not written according to formal poetry rules; such as end rhyme employed or blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter) the structure upon which the poem is built.
Instead, Walt Whitman writes in free verse - a looser form of poetry, which is not subject to strict meter, rhyme, and stanzas. One example of this stricter, more formal poetry would be a Shakespearean sonnet.
Free verse does not have regular patterns or arrangements of rhyme and meter. Walt Whitman does not use numerous stanzas in this poem either. In fact, the poem is one stanza.
The tone of “I Hear America Singing” is a joyful, positive tone. Walt Whitman is celebrating the everyday life of an average American as he or she goes about his or her daily business and responsibilities. He is showing that happiness, contentment and personal fulfillment are achievable through one being productive and enjoying his daily work. This is what built America. Whitman conveys this thought in this line:
The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam,
Therefore, Whitman is showing the reader his attitude toward everyday working Americans as they contribute to society.
Whitman does use alliteration in the poem. Alliteration involves words that begin with the same consonant sounds. These words are used successively in the same line. An example of alliteration in “I Hear America Singing” is the repeated use of the consonant ‘s’:
The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands,
There is a touch of hyperbole (or exaggeration) in the poem. Hyperbole, essentially, overstates or overemphasizes something to make a point. In the first line of the poem, Whitman states:
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear,
Whitman likens the everyday working lives of average Americans (and their words and actions) to songs, and even carols. He’s exaggerating or overemphasizing a little here to make the point that it is wonderful to see and hear America at work. To him all of this activity is a joyous song, a wonderful carol. Therefore, hyperbole serves to make his point to the reader that what he witnesses before him is something beautiful.
Walt Whitman’s writing in this poem is more everyday plain English and direct. He means exactly what he is saying and writing. He is not using figurative language in the poem. In addition, in this particular poem, he does not employ metaphors.