Chapters 2–4 Summary
Chapter 2: Where I Lived, and What I Lived For
Thoreau describes his search for a site to build his house. He explains that he initially bought “the Hollowell farm” and lived there for a time before the original owners asked to buy it back. In illustrating the farm, Thoreau conveys his attraction to its remote location alongside a river—“half a mile from the nearest neighbor”—and the rustic, ramshackle appearance of the house and barn. Thoreau reflects upon “farming on a large scale” and assures the reader that he “will not buy greedily.” He goes on to describe his early days living in the woods. While describing its ethereal features, Thoreau proclaims the cabin to be “fit to entertain a travelling god”: it has an “auroral character,” and “the morning wind forever blows.”
Before owning a house, Thoreau lived in a tent and a boat. He assesses that living in a house will be a step towards “settling in the world,” and he enjoys being surrounded by nature, in which the birds are his only neighbors. Despite Walden Pond being in fairly close proximity to the Massachusetts towns of Concord and Lincoln, Thoreau asserts that its location deep in the woods makes him feel much further from civilization than he is. He finds the pond most beautiful during late summer rainstorms, when the water is smoothest and “full of light and reflections” below the dark and cloudy sky. His sense of time and place transforms while he is in the woods, and he feels that he lives “as far off as many a region viewed nightly by astronomers.”
Thoreau reflects upon his mornings spent in the house on Walden Pond. He asserts that the morning is “the most memorable season of the day” and invigorating for the soul. Accordingly, he highlights many renowned poets and artists who created their best work in the morning. Thoreau emphasizes the importance of keeping the mind awake to maintain “effective intellectual exertion” and live “a poetic and divine life.” He declares that his motive in living alone in the woods on Walden Pond is to “live deliberately” in order to learn “the essential facts of life.” Thoreau seeks truth and authenticity in his determination to live free from America’s materialist society.
Thoreau finds services such as the railroad and the post office unnecessary, and he believes that most news is simply gossip. On the other hand, he embraces reality and argues that, in doing so, he embraces wisdom. Those who are unable to make these realizations fail to live a meaningful existence; often, this failure results from having limited perceptions of reality, especially considering that many eternal truths are unseen. Thoreau thus urges the reader to “spend one day as deliberately as Nature,” by seeking truth and wisdom through enlightening experiences.
Chapter 3: Reading
Thoreau proclaims that in seeking truth, one becomes immortal, and states his belief that “serious reading” is crucial in this pursuit of truth. He assesses his own house as perfectly suited to reading and acknowledges that he is fortunate to own so many books. Thoreau urges publishers to make texts in ancient languages, such as those by Homer, more accessible to the contemporary reader, particularly as “the adventurous student will always study classics.”
Thoreau emphasizes that “books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written,” and explores the nobility of different forms of language. He compares the orator with the writer: while the orator “yields to the inspiration of a transient occasion,” the writer instead “speaks to the intellect and health of mankind” and can thus influence future generations. He praises the cherished influence of the written word and argues that books are the most important works of art.
Further, Thoreau believes that writers have more power over humans than “kings or emperors,” because books awaken a reader’s intellectual wisdom. He therefore...
(The entire section is 1,140 words.)