(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

In 1885, during the difficult years of exile in Dublin and demanding labor as a professor, Hopkins wrote a series of poems that Robert Bridges called “the terrible sonnets.” In most of these poems, Hopkins explores the theme of exile from God, the alienation and doubt that all believers feel at times. These feelings tend to lead to self-loathing, because it is the human self that stands as a barrier to permanent union with God.

In “I Wake and Feel the Fell of Dark, Not Day,” the poet awakens in the dark, implicitly awaiting the light of day. The word “fell,” however, indicates that this is more than a literal awakening in the night. A fell is the hide, or pelt, of a dead animal. His feeling the fell of dark suggests imprisonment in an animal body and the desire to escape into a “body of light.”

In the rest of the first quatrain of this modified Italian sonnet, the poet addresses his heart, lamenting the “black hours” they have spent, the terrors they have experienced together in this seemingly endless night. In the second quatrain, he says that he has been speaking metaphorically, that where he has said hours he means years. In fact, his whole life has been lived in the dark of separation from God, yearning for the light of final union. All of his prayers to God have been like dead letters, sent to one who is distant. Dead letters are not delivered and may be returned to the sender. This comparison emphasizes the...

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(Masterpieces of World Literature, Critical Edition)

Bender, Todd K. Gerard Manley Hopkins: The Classical Background and Critical Reception of His Work. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Brown, Daniel. Gerard Manley Hopkins. Tavistock, Devon, England: Northcote House, 2004.

Bump, Jerome. Gerard Manley Hopkins. Boston: Twayne, 1982.

Downes, David Anthony. Hopkins’ Achieved Self. Rev. ed. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2002.

Hartman, Geoffrey H., ed. Hopkins: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.

Kuhn, Joaquin, and Joseph J. Feeney, eds. Hopkins Variations: Standing Round a Waterfall. Philadelphia: Saint Joseph’s University Press, 2002.

MacKenzie, Norman. A Reader’s Guide to Gerard Manley Hopkins. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981.

Mariani, Paul. A Commentary on the Complete Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1970.

Sulloway, Alison G., ed. Critical Essays on Gerard Manley Hopkins. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1990.