This poem is a dialogue, a short drama but deliberately without any sort of action; the first speaker asks a series of questions, which is answered by the second. Each exchange advances the time of day a little, from the morning to the late afternoon; there is no symbolic night that would somehow give closure. The dialogue has been read as reflecting the final days of the Roman Empire, attacked and overrun by Germanic invaders, although the scene and meaning should not be limited to a particular time or set of events. The poem is about Rome, but by implication about all imperial civilizations coming to their end; there is also a suggestion of the final days of the Byzantine Empire, the continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean.
The speakers are citizens of a dying empire and are waiting for the arrival of the barbarians, who will take over, by implication making real decisions and exercizing real power, restoring energy if not peace. The tone of the conversation is hardly excited; the voices are of a worn-out civilization, too tired to resist, too decayed to hope. The first speaker asks, as if unaware, why the citizens are waiting in the marketplace. The second speaker replies that they are waiting for the barbarians. There seems to be an awkwardness in having the first speaker seem so uninformed, but this is not really awkward; Cavafy is illustrating the decay of interest in the civic world, an apathy that has led to ignorance....
(The entire section is 448 words.)