Victorian Hellenism Further Reading - Essay

Further Reading

(Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism)

Anderson, Warren D. Matthew Arnold and the Classical Tradition. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1965, 293 p.

Examines Arnold's fascination with the classical tradition, particularly his interest in the culture of ancient Greece.

Björk, Lennart. "Thomas Hardy's 'Hellenism'." In Papers on Language and Literature Presented to Alvar Ellegard and Erik Frykman, edited by Sven Bäckman and Gören Kjellmer, pp. 46-58. Göteborg, Sweden: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1985.

Traces several possible sources for the Hellenism that appears in several of Hardy's novels and contends that it functions as "a criterion against which nineteenth-century life, and view of life, is measured."

Clarke, G. W., ed. Rediscovering Hellenism: The Hellenic Inheritance and the English Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, 264 p.

Anthology of recent critical essays, several of which investigate aspects of Victorian Hellenism, including Richard Jenkyns on painting, James Bowen on education, and Anthony Stephens on Nietzsche.

DeLaura, David J. Hebrew and Hellene in Victorian England: Newman, Arnold, and Pater. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1969, 370 p.

Seeks primarily to demonstrate that Matthew Arnold and Walter Pater adapted "the traditional religious culture to the needs of the later nineteenth century," and also explores how each writer's approach was shaped by the importance of Hellenism in his education.

Lambropoulos, Vassilis. "Violence and the Liberal Imagination: The Representation of Hellenism in Matthew Arnold." In The Violence of Representation: Literature and the History of Violence, edited by Nancy Armstrong and Leonard Tennenhouse, pp. 171-93. London and New York: Routledge, 1989.

In sections four through six of this essay, Lambropoulos attempts to describe the dialectic of Hebraic and Hellenic. In investigating how Arnold defined these categories in Culture and Anarchy, Lambropoulos ultimately suggests that Arnold's identification of the terms with Aryan and Semitic people played into the anti-semitism that surfaced in twentieth-century Europe.

Turner, Frank M. "Antiquity in Victorian Contexts." Browning Institute Studies: An Annual of Victorian Literary and Cultural History 10, edited by Gerhard Joseph (1982): 1-14.

Advocates further study of Victorian Hellenism as a concrete and under-exploited route to gaining new understandings of the period; also explores specific motives for the Victorian appropriation of classical texts and images.