Vicente Aleixandre Analysis

Other Literary Forms

(Literary Essentials: Great Poems of the World)

Vicente Aleixandre published a great number of prologues, critical letters, memoirs, and evocations of friends and literary figures, many of them later included or rewritten for his major prose work, Los encuentros (1958; the encounters). Aleixandre also made several speeches on poetry and poets, later published in pamphlet or book form.


(Literary Essentials: Great Poems of the World)

After receiving the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1977, Vicente Aleixandre stated that the prize was “a response symbolic of the relation of a poet with all other men.” In Aleixandre’s own estimation, winning the Nobel was his only worthy achievement. All other influences on the development of poetry were insignificant compared to the poet’s call to speak for his fellow humans.

The extent of Aleixandre’s influence is considerable, however, even if he denied its importance. He was a member of the Royal Spanish Academy (1949), the Hispanic Society of America, the Academy of the Latin World, Paris, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Telmo, Málaga, the Spanish American Academy of Bogotá, the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Puerto Rico, and, as of 1972, an Honorary Fellow of the American Association of Spanish and Portuguese.

All of these honors recognize Aleixandre’s lifelong devotion to the production of a unified body of poetry. A member of the celebrated generación del 27, including Jorge Guillén, Pedro Salinas, Federico García Lorca, Rafael Alberti, and Gerardo Diego, Aleixandre was one of the central figures of Spanish Surrealism. Although influenced by André Breton and his circle, the Spanish Surrealists developed to a great extent independently of their French counterparts. While French Surrealism is significant for its worldwide impact on the arts, it produced a surprisingly small amount of lasting poetry. In contrast, Spanish Surrealism—both in Spain and, with notable local variations, in Latin America—constitutes one of the richest poetic traditions of the twentieth century, a tradition in which Aleixandre played a vital role.

Central Imagery and Influence

(Literary Essentials: Great Poems of the World)

The sea occupies a high place in Aleixandre’s poetic scale of values. Among the 336 poems of his Poesías completas, the sea appears 182 times; moreover, it is used as a central theme in sixteen poems. The sea, a recurring symbol or archetype which integrates all Aleixandre’s characteristic themes, represents primitive, instinctive life, true values lost by modern civilized man and maintained by simple sea creatures, a constant interplay between Thanatos and Eros, and a variety of sensual, erotic states involving repressed sexuality. Often Aleixandre juxtaposes the sea with images of forest, beach, teeth, tongue, birds, sun, moon, and breast. The sea in Aleixandre’s poetry is pathognomonic in its psychological connotations, rooted in the painful dynamic of Aleixandre’s own life, although at times it evokes a happy, innocent childhood, much as the gypsy symbolized the childhood of García Lorca. Aleixandre disguises the relationship between the symbol and its meaning at unconscious levels; he distorts and represses it so that the symbols may lend themselves to many interpretations, which only psychoanalysis can fully reveal.

Indeed, a catharsis comparable to psychological analysis is accomplished by Aleixandre’s poetry, except that here the patient ministers to himself; for example, unconscious forces account for the breast motif associated with the sea, one of Aleixandre’s most constant neurotic projections. Throughout his poems, Aleixandre uses the sea as a surface on which to project his images, according to which it takes on various hues, colors, and attributes. It can be an “unstable sea,” an “imperious sea,” or a “contained sea,” and it serves as the principal, though not the exclusive, vehicle for the projection of neurotic fantasies in which the poet employs symbols to convey meaning he might consciously wish to suppress. Aleixandre’s sea imagery irrationally yet imaginatively challenges the reader’s preconceptions, as the poet attempts deliberately or otherwise to recapture an unconscious knowledge and create a unity of perception.

Aleixandre’s interest in Freudian analysis made him particularly receptive to Surrealism, yet he never accepted the “pure” Surrealism of André Breton. Breton defined Surrealism as a psychic automatism through which he proposed to express the real functioning of thought without control by reason and beyond all aesthetic or moral norms, revealing the relationship between the real and the imaginary. For Breton, perception and representation are products of the dissociation of a single original faculty which the eidetic image recognizes and which is to be found in the primitive and the child. The distinction between the subjective and the objective lost its value as the poet sought to engage in a kind of automatic writing. Aleixandre rejected the notion of automatic writing, but in his preoccupation with the subconscious and his powerful, irrational imagery, he introduced Surrealism to Spanish poetry, where it found extremely fertile soil.


Ámbito (ambit), Aleixandre’s first collection, is related to the much later volume, Shadow of Paradise. Ámbito, composed of seven sections and eight “Nights” (including an initial and final “Night” and one “Sea”), contains classical and Gongoristic forms—not unexpected at the time, since the collection was composed partly during the tercentenary of Luis de Góngora y Argote, when Baroque formalism ruled the day. Nature is everywhere; although there is a faint reflection of the cosmic force, the poet is largely descriptive and objective in a somewhat traditional way. Here, he contemplates nature, while in later works he will seek to possess it and be one with it. Written during his first serious illness, the book sensually examines the fleeting aspects of time. Within his own boundary—the limits of his sickroom, where he lived a solitary existence—he waxed both tender and uncontrollably passionate. Yet Ámbito’s formal beauty, pleasure in the contemplation of nature, desire for perfection, and joy in life reflect both Juan Ramón Jiménez and Jorge Guillén more than the later Aleixandre. The poetry deals with the world of the senses, classic and cold at times but also warm and romantic. The elusive imagery resembles the reverberations of a musical instrument. The poet employs traditional ballad form instead of the free verse that he later came to use almost exclusively, and his ten- and six-syllable lines reveal his great sense of rhythm. In this volume of youthful love, Aleixandre delicately renders his love affair with nature,...

(The entire section is 1899 words.)


(Literary Essentials: Great Poems of the World)

Cabrera, Vicente, and Harriet Boyer, eds. Critical Views on Vicente Aleixandre’s Poetry. Lincoln, Nebr.: Society of Spanish and Spanish-American Studies, 1979. Criticism and interpretation of Aleixandre’s addresses, essays, lectures, and poetry. Includes selected poems in English translation.

Daydí-Tolson, Santiago, ed. Vicente Aleixandre: A Critical Appraisal. Ypsilanti, Mich.: Bilingual Press, 1981. A critical study of Aleixandre’s work with a biographical introduction, extensively annotated bibliography, index, and Aleixandre’s Nobel Prize acceptance lecture.

Harris, Derek. Metal Butterflies and Poisonous Lights: The Language of Surrealism in Lorca, Alberti, Cernuda, and Aleixandre. Anstruther, Fife, Scotland: La Sirena, 1998. History and criticism of Surrealism in Spanish literature, including the works of Aleixandre. Includes bibliography.

Harris, Derek. “Spanish Surrealism: The Case of Vicente Aleixandre and Rafael Alberti.” Forum for Modern Language Studies 18, no. 2 (April, 1982). Discusses surrealism in Aleixandre’s work.

Ilie, P. The Surrealist Mode in Spanish Literature. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1968. A study of Surrealism in Spanish literature. Includes bibliographic references.

Murphy, Daniel. Vicente Aleixandre’s Stream of Lyric Consciousness. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 2001. Criticism and interpretation of Aleixandre’s poetics, with bibliographical citations and index.

Schwartz, Kessel. Vicente Aleixandre. New York: Twayne, 1970. An introductory biography and critical analysis of selected works by Aleixandre.