Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 496
Dr. Primrose rejects a suitor for his daughter’s hand because the man has lost his fortune and seems to live in near poverty. What the Vicar does not discover until the end of the novel is that the impoverished Mr. Burchell is actually Sir William Thornhill, the uncle of Squire Thornhill, a man the vicar respects but who in the course of the novel does him and his family great evil.
The good Vicar does not see things very clearly, but the warm humor of this first-person narrative--the vicar tells his own story-- lies in his many trusting and moral observations. The way he sees the world is nowhere near the way it is, but neither is his goodness completely foolish. He wants all the right things for his children: humility, civility, and true simplicity. Instead, they are seduced and jailed. Nevertheless, Dr. Primrose is not rendered absurd by his trusting ways. He is too easy a mark, and his near destruction by the vicious Squire is too easy a victory for evil to enjoy.
Goldsmith’s book was admired by sages such as Goethe for the way it made goodness respectable. The Age of Reason had sunk to depths of cynicism and despair, perhaps best expressed in Voltaire’s CANDIDE (1759). Goldsmith’s gentle fable has a philosophical depth as tough-minded as Voltaire’s famous fable is savage. A writer who can please us with his wit and charm us with his characters and scene painting has the right to ask us to deem his belief in human goodness credible.
Adelstein, Michael E. “Duality of Theme in The Vicar of Wakefield.” College English 22 (February, 1961): 315-321. Argues that Goldsmith changed his theme in the course of writing this novel, shifting from the theme of providence to that of fortitude, thus changing Dr. Primrose from an innocent simpleton to a resolute hero.
Church, Richard. The Growth of the English Novel. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1961. Analyzes the novel and sees its tone as characteristic of the national style, praising particularly the ease of his writing.
Dahl, Curtis. “Patterns of Disguise in The Vicar of Wakefield.” English Literary History 25 (June, 1958): 90-104. Dahl addresses the issue of the novel’s coherence; its coincidence and improbabilities are counterbalanced, he asserts, by the unifying effects of the disguise theme. Characters disguise themselves both literally and figuratively and exhibit their growth by their ability to see through deceptions.
Jeffares, A. Norman. Oliver Goldsmith. London: Longmans, Green, 1965. Discusses how the novel’s theme of Primrose’s submission to adversity joins with Goldsmith’s gentle irony, which emerges from the straight-faced style of the vicar-narrator. Notes the similarity between Goldsmith’s vicar and Fielding’s Parson Adams.
Phelps, Gilbert. A Reader’s Guide to Fifty British Novels, 1600-1900. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1979. Offers a brief biography, a summary of the novel’s plot, and a section of critical commentary. Faults the novel’s proportions but praises its clarity of style.