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Last Updated on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 447

W.B. Yeats's "Under Ben Bulben" is one of the last poems he ever produced, in the final year of his life. There is a lot about the poem's focus which betrays the poet's state of mind at this time: as if knowing he was going to die soon, he writes...

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W.B. Yeats's "Under Ben Bulben" is one of the last poems he ever produced, in the final year of his life. There is a lot about the poem's focus which betrays the poet's state of mind at this time: as if knowing he was going to die soon, he writes this poem as a means of commanding those still living to focus upon the spiritual power of art, specifically poetry, and use it to ensure the great figures of artistic (and Irish) history would continue through the output of their descendants.

I remember when I was teaching this poem, one misconception that occurred again and again was that students thought "Ben Bulben" was a person. In fact, "Ben Bulben" is the name of a mountain in Yeats's ancestral hometown (compare the better known Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Britain). In calling his poem "Under Ben Bulben," Yeats is foreshadowing the final stanza, in which he explains what it is that will be under the mountain in the end: Yeats's own body. At the end of the poem, Yeats imagines himself lying beneath the mountain in the town his ancestors lived in. It is because he is seeing this in the not-too-distant future that Yeats takes the opportunity to exhort his readers to "swear by what the sages spoke" and achieve a kind of immortality born of complete expression of one's passions.

Over the course of the poem, Yeats gives a number of examples of those who felt caught between "race and soul," particularly in Ireland. He makes a specific plea to those who have heard and understood the commands of the Irish patriot Mitchel, warning against straightforward warfare and identifying the element of peace which must come before our passions can truly be realized.

Yeats expresses the connection between true artistic output, the pouring of souls onto paper or walls or into music, and the existence of God. He alludes to Michelangelo, Quattrocento and Blake, suggesting that all created something which endures today and which indicates that God is real and moves through great artists. It falls to "Irish poets" in particular, Yeats suggests, to ensure the history of Ireland, from the peasantry to the nobility, is kept alive through what they produce, and Yeats calls upon these poets to continue producing their output.

In the final stanza, the poem comes full circle again as Yeats reveals why the work of these poets will soon be so pivotal. His own days of poetry will soon be behind him, as he will lie under Ben Bulben himself. On his gravestone will be cut these words:

Cast a cold eye
On life, on death.
Horseman, pass by!


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Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 593

“Under Ben Bulben” was first published in three of Ireland’s national daily newspapers within a week of Yeats’s death and first appeared in book form in Last Poems and Two Plays (1939). Its newspaper publication was a mark of respect to the dead poet and a call for public recognition of his contribution to Irish life and literature. A similar, less self-centered call is what “Under Ben Bulben” itself communicates. As a result, the poem was long considered to be Yeats’s last will and poetic testament.

The poem’s title refers to the table mountain that overlooks the town of Sligo. If “Under Ben Bulben” may be read as the poet’s will, part of his bequest is that he be interred in the landscape of his childhood. Doing so would achieve a long-sought unity, not only with his ancestors but also with much that inspired his poetry. The location and character of the poet’s final resting place are given a privileged position at the end of the poem. Here, Yeats argues for the significance of being at one with the enduring presences of place and family. It is by its concluding lines, therefore, that “Under Ben Bulben” most resembles a will, since these arrange the terms and conditions of both the poet’s death and his legacy.

Yet these lines constitute a relatively small part of what Yeats wants to hand down. The emphasis on landscape and lineage must be seen as the end product of the poem’s various other significant emphases. “Under Ben Bulben” ranges far and wide over a large number of Yeats’s interests. The poem amounts to a condensed version of the poet’s intellectual autobiography. Yet rather than view the poem as a series of six interlinked episodes, it is more appropriate to note how different the parts are from one another and then to notice what they have in common.

The poem opens, as Yeats’s poetic career began, with allusions to pre-Christian deities and forces and then interprets what these forces represent. The Witch of Atlas, renowned in mythology for her beauty, and “That pale, long visaged company” of Irish gods and heroes have been identified as agents of vision and passion. These two qualities Yeats then claims as constants that make both individual existence and the history of Western civilization valuable. The connection between intensity of feeling, even violence, and liberating insight is asserted in the third part of the poem. The link between artistic accomplishment and passionate involvement is made in part 4,though Yeats regrets that this connection has not endured since the middle of the nineteenth century, when the last-mentioned artist, Samuel Palmer, lived. Yeats’s message to the Irish poets who follow him is, likewise, a wish that they combine spiritedness and a sense of form. Again, as throughout all of “Under Ben Bulben,” the persistent thought is of the unification of different and opposed elements. As part 5 affirms, “Porter-drinkers’ randy laughter” is as important as “the holiness of monks.”

In form, meter, and language, “Under Ben Bulben” has the flexibility, directness, and verve of Yeats at his best. At the same time, the poem’s range of allusions and complexity of thought also make it typical of Yeats’s intellectual ambition. Yet it is this combination of complex thought and simple method that gives the reader a direct experience of the poet’s struggle for unity. The combination also confirms what the poet himself realized: that art, not life, is the means of attaining this unity.

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