Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 2510
When Milan Kundera’s fourth novel, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, appeared in English translation in 1980, few American readers were familiar with his work; indeed, few had so much as heard his name. By the time The Unbearable Lightness of Being was published, three and a half years later, Kundera had become one of the most visible figures on the international literary scene, the subject of many feature articles, interviews, and even (in France and England at least) television programs. The Unbearable Lightness of Being was a number-one best-seller in France (where Czech exile Kundera has lived for ten years) and appeared on best-seller lists in the United States. Kundera’s novel was a critical success as well, widely and favorably reviewed, and was the winner of the Los Angeles Times Book Award for fiction in 1984.
Two striking features distinguish The Unbearable Lightness of Being. First, it is a novel in which reflective thought plays an unusually prominent role. Kundera offers not only many arresting “ideas” (aphorisms, pensées) but also extended exercises in thinking (arguments, “thought experiments,” even brief essays). The second feature, related to the first, is what Kundera has referred to as the novel’s “polyphonic” structure. Polyphony, as Kundera defines it, is the fusion of “philosophy, narrative, and dream” and “the specifically novelistic essay” into “a single music.”
Ironically, the very features that give The Unbearable Lightness of Being its distinctive character have been ignored, downplayed, or misrepresented in most reviews of the novel. There are two reasons for this failure, one trivial and one not. The former is simply a matter of space; it is possible to do only so much in a short review. The latter, however, is a matter of widely held and generally unexamined assumptions concerning the role of ideas in fiction. While such issues cannot be pursued here, it must be noted that Anglo-American modernism (as opposed to the Central European modernism of Robert Musil and Hermann Broch) has as one of its ten commandments a prohibition against ideas in the novel. Many reviewers, like many critics and indeed many novelists, accept this dogma without question.
The Unbearable Lightness of Being is divided into seven parts: part 1, “Lightness and Weight”; part 2, “Soul and Body”; part 3, “Words Misunderstood”; part 4, “Soul and Body”; part 5, “Lightness and Weight”; part 6, “The Grand March”; and part 7, “Karenin’s Smile.” In turn, each part is divided into numbered subsections of varying length. (In a Paris Review interview, Kundera refers to these subsections as “chapters”; accordingly, that usage will be employed here.)
This structure, with its suggestion of theme and variation, seems to invite the reader to find a musical analogy—an invitation confirmed in Kundera’s remarks on the novel:The chapters themselves mustcreate a little world of their own; they must be relatively independent. That is why I keep pestering my publishers to make sure that the numbers are clearly visible and that the chapters are well separated. The chapters are like the measures of a musical score!Each part could have a musical tempo indication.
Such musical analogies, insofar as they are supposed to correspond to the reader’s experience of the text in more than the most general fashion, are notoriously dubious. Nevertheless, Kundera’s remarks help to convey the feel of his novel in a way that most of the reviews have failed to do. As one reads the book, one is always aware of its intellectual structure. This is not a submerged symbolic structure such as students are taught to recognize in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness; it is quite explicit. To summarize the “action” of...
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