The Controversy

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Ulysses was written over a six-year period, from 1914 to 1920; however, there were publication problems long before the novel was completed. Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap, who published The Little Review in New York City’s Greenwich Village, were the first to try putting Joyce’s new work into print. However, nearly all of New York’s printers refused to accept a work that dealt frankly with such bodily functions as defecation and that used slang terms for sex organs. Fear of legal repercussions prompted them to refuse the commission. Anderson and Heap finally found a Serbian immigrant who was willing to undertake the task. Regarding censorship in America he observed: “Here the people are not brave about words, they are not healthy about words. . . . You can go to prison.”

Censorship made itself felt soon after The Little Review released its first Joyce issue in March, 1918. Since this obscure publication was mailed to its subscribers, the U.S. Post Office intervened by seizing the magazine. It branded several issues obscene and burned them. Accounts vary, but from three to four such seizures took place, in which the Post Office destroyed all four thousand copies each time. Material known to have been seized included the “Lestrygonians” section in January, 1919; “Scylla and Charybdis” in May, 1919; and “Cyclops” in January, 1920.

The First Ulysses Trial. On October 4, 1920, John Sumner, head of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, had Anderson and Heap arrested and charged with publishing obscene material. The offensive matter was the book’s “Nausicaa” episode, appearing in the July-August, 1920, issue of the periodical. In that segment Leopold Bloom has a sexual orgasm when young Gertie McDowell exposes her legs on the beach. A three- judge panel heard the ensuing case in February, 1921, before the Court of Special Sessions. Defense witnesses failed to communicate the significance of Joyce’s work, and two of the judges admitted that they could not understand the text. The standard for determining whether something was obscene at that time—the question of whether it had a tendency to corrupt the morals of young people—derived from an 1868 English case, Regina v. Hicklin. Anderson and Heap were convicted—barely avoiding jail time—fined fifty dollars each, and forced to cease publication.

The Repercussions

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Once Ulysses was labeled “obscene, copyrighting it in the United States became impossible, effectively ending any chance for the book’s legitimate publication in the United States for many years. The book’s publication might have been left unfinished for many years, had it not been for the intervention of Sylvia Beach, the owner of the Shakespeare and Company bookstore in Paris. In France’s more liberal atmosphere she was able to issue the first complete edition of the novel in February, 1922. Throughout the 1920’s and early 1930’s, the once-obscure novel gained an international reputation in literary circles and beyond. Censorship, however, continued unabated in many nations. In 1922 imported copies of Ulysses were burned in Ireland and Canada, and five hundred copies were burned by the U.S. Post Office. The following year saw the destruction of another five hundred copies at the port of Folkstone by British customs officers. Nevertheless, efforts to suppress the book ultimately failed. Pirated reprintings of the Paris edition continued to turn up in America, but without royalty payments for Joyce. Even after a 1928 customs court judge condemned the book, thousands of copies of the Paris edition found their way into the United States. Ulysses became the forbidden fruit: Daring Paris tourists smuggled blue paper-covered copies of the book out of France—under their clothes, or perhaps disguised as Bibles. By the early 1930’s, this banned novel had even found its way into libraries as well as thousands of private homes. Since customs officials were unable to stop this smuggling, the task of censorship fell to individual librarians. In a 1930 address, George F. Bowerman, of the District of Columbia’s public library system, wanted to relegate Ulysses “to a medical library or a library of abnormal psychology.”

The Second Trial

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Eventually Random House, an American publisher, decided to force a test case. After signing a contract with Joyce in 1932, Random House arranged to have a copy of Ulysses seized by customs officials in New York. The seized copy was bulging with copies of favorable reviews that had been pasted in—a ploy that was necessary in order to ensure that the reviews would be admitted as evidence in court. In the ensuing legal case, United States v. One Book Called Ulysses, the government declared that the book was obscene under the terms of the Tariff Act of 1930. Judge John M. Woolsey presided over book’s trial, which opened in the fall of 1933 and closed with a decision lifting the ban in early December. Woolsey significantly liberalized the definition of obscenity in the United States. Whereas the Hicklin test could ban a book based upon a single paragraph, Woolsey decided that obscene intent should be determined by viewing the work as a whole—even if some passages could give offense. The decision was upheld by an appeals court, and Random House formally published Ulysses the following January.

While Woolsey’s decision legalized publication of the book, censorship continued in other forms. In 1960, for example, Caedmon Records released recorded readings of two of the novel’s characters, Leopold Bloom and his wife, Molly. The publisher made no mention of the fact that the recorded passages had been expurgated. A film adaptation of the book made by Joseph Strick in 1967 was heavily cut by the British Board of Film Censors—especially Molly Bloom’s soliloquy at the end of the novel. However, the board later relented, and the excised material was restored in 1970. Ironically, a 1995 edition of the book in China—a country long known for censorship—was published intact.

Places Discussed

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*Dublin

*Dublin. Ireland’s capital city and principal east coast port on the Irish Sea, through which a young Irish writer and teacher named Stephen Dedalus (whom Joyce introduced in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in 1914) and the Jewish advertising salesman Leopold Bloom wander until they eventually meet. The novel explores streets, shops, public houses, and countless other places found along their routes.

In 1904, Dublin is a city with a population of about three hundred thousand people. Ireland is still under the rule of Great Britain, whose local governor lives in a regal house in Dublin’s Phoenix Park and governs from Dublin Castle. The city as a whole is a complex mix, with both wretched slums and lingering remnants of eighteenth century elegance. More than twenty thousand families live in one-room tenement apartments, many of which house four or more people. Dublin is also a city with an interesting history of Anglo-Irish literary and cultural activity and a kind of urban energy that tends to countermand James Joyce’s estimate of psychological “paralysis.” Dublin provided Joyce with the raw material for a cosmos built on patient attention to the minute particulars of city life. The dense texture of metropolitan detail in Ulysses complements and offers paths into the psychological substance of the novel’s characters.

Many chapters depict the protagonists as well as multiple groups of people traveling routes across the landscape of Dublin. Throughout the book, the substance of the city is solidified by the landmarks and streets that are mentioned, ranging from well-known places such as Mountjoy Square, Grafton Street, and Phoenix Park, to a diversity of shops, pubs, tramcar stops, and quays.

*Sandycove

*Sandycove. Suburb southeast of Dublin now known as Dun Laoghlaire, in which Dedalus, in one of the versions of the narrative consciousness (along with Leopold and Molly Bloom) that operates in the novel, is living as the novel opens. Dedalus shares rooms with the medical student Buck Mulligan in Martello Tower, built on the Dublin coast as one of seventy-four similar defensive constructions erected in anticipation of a French invasion. (The tower was later converted into the James Joyce Tower Museum.)

*Dalkey Avenue

*Dalkey Avenue. Sandycove street on which the Clifton School, at which Joyce taught briefly as a young man, stands, and the location, near the Martello Tower, of the unnamed school from which Stephen is about to resign when the story begins.

*Sandymount

*Sandymount. Beach several miles up the coast from Sandycove, along which Dedalus walks past the decaying house of his uncle Richie Goulding in the chapter that concludes the first section of the novel. Later in the novel, Bloom is entranced by the sight of Gertie MacDowell and her friends on the same beach.

*Eccles Street

*Eccles Street (EH-clees). North Dublin street on which Leopold Bloom lives with his wife, Molly, at number 7. Their home is a worn-down but still genteel, three-story house. As Bloom begins his wanderings on June 16, 1904, he crosses to the “bright side” (southwest) of Eccles Street, then walks to Dorset Street, notices the sun near the steeple of St. George’s church on Temple Street and passes St. Joseph’s National School, on the way to the Dlugacz butcher shop. These accurate and very specific details establish the factual ground for an inventive series of imaginative devices that Joyce uses to create the reality of the lives of the inhabitants of Dublin.

Toward the end of the novel, Bloom finds Dedalus passed out in Dublin’s red-light district and walks back to his house with him. Dedalus declines Bloom’s offer of hospitality. Bloom then retires with his wife, whose soliloquy concludes the novel. Her recollective re-creation of her past with Bloom, as well as her life before, is anchored by a reflection on a moment in their courtship, when she and Bloom were together on Howth Reach, overlooking the sea north of Dublin, and by her thoughts of her girlhood and first love in Gibraltar, also near the ocean.

*Sir John Rogerson’s Quay

*Sir John Rogerson’s Quay. Dublin street that runs along the south bank of the River Liffey, the channel that carries the waters of the Irish Sea through the city and beyond to the west. Joyce would put much more emphasis on the Liffey in Finnegan’s Wake (1939), in which the river spirit is incarnated in the character of Anna Livia Plurabelle, than he does in Ulysses. However, in this novel, Bloom proceeds south, passing a series of streets in the inner city, before picking up a letter at the Westland Row post office.

Bloom’s path through the city continues in the next section as he takes a taxicab along Great Brunswick Street (now Pearse street), noting various prominent buildings (the Ancient Concert Rooms; St. Mark’s Church; the Queen’s Theatre) before his cab crosses O’Connell Bridge, where its passengers see the statue of the huge “cloaked Liberator’s form.” The cab then continues through North Dublin, across the Royal Canal until it arrives at Glasnevin Cemetery for the funeral of Paddy Dignam, an old friend of Bloom who died suddenly of a stroke. Dublin’s waterways carry some suggestion of the rivers of Hades in this section.

*Evening Telegraph

*Evening Telegraph. Newspaper located in an office on North Prince Street, where both Bloom and Stephen go on errands. From there, Bloom walks back across the Liffey and down Grafton Street, passing such notable Dublin landmarks as the Irish Parliament building (now the Bank of Ireland), the offices of the Irish Times, and various small shops, before stopping at Davy Byrne’s “moral pub.” (The pub now advertises its appearance in Ulysses and displays a plaque containing Joyce’s semi-ironic description.) From the pub, he continues on to the National Library in Kildare Street.

*Mabbot Street

*Mabbot Street. Red-light district of Dublin (now considerably transformed by slum clearance), where Bella Cohen’s brothel is situated (on what is now Corporation Street). There, Stephen passes out in the gutter and is rescued by Bloom, who looks for a cab near the Amiens Street Station (now the Connolly Station). Eventually Stephen and Bloom walk back to Bloom’s home, on a course that Joyce describes with precision, street by street.

Homeric world

Homeric world. As a parallel to the episodes in Dublin, Joyce used Homer’s The Odyssey (c. 800 b.c.e.) to amplify the narrative action of his own novel. Among other complementary sites, Paddy Dignam’s funeral is likened to Odysseus’s trip to Hades; the newspaper office is like Homer’s Cave of the Winds, the editor similar to Aeolus, god of wind; Bloom’s assault in Barney Kiernan’s pub recalls the attack of the Cyclops in The Odyssey; the visit to the brothel resembles the Circe episode; and Bloom’s return to his home is like the Penelope section (as emphasized by Molly’s concluding soliloquy), after Odysseus finally returns to Ithaca.

Historical Context

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Irish Struggle for Independence: From the 1860s to World War I
The term, home rule, refers to an Irish movement for legislative independence for Ireland from the United Kingdom, which began in the 1860s. In 1874, advocates for home rule won fifty-six seats in the House of Commons, and these men formed an Irish party of sorts in Westminster, led by Isaac Butts. Butts was followed by William Shaw in 1879 and by Charles Stewart Parnell in 1880. As Parnell led the movement, advocates for home rule won eighty-six seats in the 1885 parliamentary election and supported the liberal government of Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, who introduced the first home rule bill. It was defeated in 1886 in the House of Commons. Gladstone introduced a second bill in 1892, which passed through the House of Commons but was defeated in the House of Lords. The third time such a bill was presented to the House of Commons occurred in 1912 by Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith. This third piece of legislation passed the House of Commons, but in the House of Lords, a veto move was used to stall discussion for two years, by which time World War I had begun and Parliament decided to postpone discussion of home rule until after the conclusion of the war.

The Rise and Fall of Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell is buried in Glasnevin, where in the novel May Dedalus is buried and Patrick Dignam’s body is laid to rest. In the Lestrygonians episode, Parnell’s brother, John Howard Parnell, is spotted in the corner of a pub, and in the Cyclops and Eumaeus episodes, Parnell is heatedly discussed, Bloom siding privately with Parnell rather than contributing to criticism of him. Indeed, by 1904, Parnell was, in every sense, gone but not forgotten.

Born June 27, 1846, Charles Stewart Parnell was educated at the University of Cambridge and became politically active as a young man when he began supporting the work of Isaac Butts for home rule. Parnell was elected to the House of Commons in 1874, and once there, he pursued an obstructionist policy, using filibusters to stall legislation and bring political and public attention to conditions and sentiments in Ireland. In 1879, Parnell headed the recently formed National Land League, which sought ultimately to remove English landlords from Ireland. When Parnell urged a boycott, he was arrested, and from Kilmainham Prison he issued a manifesto, inciting Irish peasants to refuse to pay their rent to English landlords. After this, he and Prime Minister Gladstone reached what was called the Kilmainham Treaty, in which the no-rent policy was abandoned and Parnell urged Irish people to avoid violence. Parnell was released on May 2, 1882, and just four days later, the chief secretary and undersecretary for Ireland, Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish and Thomas Burke, were murdered in Phoenix Park, Dublin, an event alluded to in the cabstand discussion in the Eumaeus episode and elsewhere in Ulysses. Much speculation surrounded the identity of the assassins, since this crime so effectively sabotaged Parnell’s new strategy for peace in partnership with Gladstone’s resolve to work for reform. Ultimately, the radical militant group, the Irish Invincibles, took responsibility for or was assigned responsibility for the murders. The aftermath was a split between Parnell and Gladstone, culminating in the end of the prime minister’s government.

The death knell of Parnell’s effectiveness as a leader sounded with the 1889 divorce case brought by Lieutenant William Henry O’Shea, a loyal supporter of Parnell, who named Parnell in an adultery charge. Proven guilty of this extramarital alliance in 1890, Parnell was ruined. He and Katherine O’Shea, who had been lovers for years, were married shortly after the O’Shea divorce was granted, causing further public scandal among both Irish and English, which exacerbated the divisions among the nationalists. Parnell fought in vain for the reunification of the nationalists until his death at Brighton on October 6, 1891. The schism persisted and contributed to the further delay of the discussion of home rule when World War I erupted.

Literary Style

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Stream of Consciousness
The stream-of-consciousness novel takes as its subject the interior thought sequence and patterns of associations which distinguish characters from one another. According to A Handbook to Literature, the stream-of-consciousness novel assumes that what matters most about human existence is how it is experienced subjectively. The interior level of experience is idiosyncratic, illogical, and disjointed and the “pattern of free psychological association . . . determines the shifting sequence of thought and feeling.” The work of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) offered a structure and way of understanding different psychological levels or areas of consciousness, and some modern writers, such as Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and William Faulkner, drew upon Freud’s theories as they used the stream-of-consciousness style.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many English novels focused more on outer rather than inner events, and the plot was usually arranged in a linear fashion (as it is, for example, in Charles Dickens’s David Copperfield). Typically, when these novels traced the inner thoughts and feelings of characters, they did so within the single idiom of the narrator. In Joyce’s handling, the spontaneous flow of thoughts and associations which typify one character is presented in that person’s own idiom or voice. In part, what Joyce undertakes in Ulysses is to write the novel from the inner world of characters’ interior thinking, using their idiosyncratic language patterns.

In his review of the novel, Edmund Wilson explains that whereas earlier novelists presented their characters’ inner thoughts in “one vocabulary and cadence,” Joyce communicates “the consciousness of each of the characters . . . made to speak in the idiom proper to it.” In this way, as Wilson explains, “Joyce manages to give the effect of unedited human minds, drifting aimlessly along from one triviality to another.” For the inexperienced reader who brings to the novel expectations based on the nineteenth-century novel, the challenge is huge. Such a reader assumes that the novel will present first things first, that its characters will be introduced, that relationships will be explicit and clear, and so forth. However, in the case of Ulysses, the reader must experience the world of the novel from within each subjective consciousness as it is presented.

Autobiographical Novel
Ulysses is, in part, the portrait of Joyce as a slightly older young artist, back from Paris at the time of his mother’s death and staying for a while in the Martello Tower rented by his friend, Oliver St. John Gogart. Joyce was educated by Jesuits, and in 1904, he taught in a boys’ school in Dalkey, about a mile from the Martello Tower. Among his literary friends, he pronounced all manner of theories, not least of which was his biographical interpretation of Hamlet, and, with a fine tenor voice, he pursued a singing career, entering a singing competition and giving a couple of performances in the summer of 1904. The portrait in Ulysses of the feckless Simon Dedalus is based on John Joyce, and the Dedalus sisters reside at the same address in the novel that the Joyce family resided in that year: 7 St. Peter’s Terrace, Cabra. The choice of June 16, 1904, as the time for this novel honors Joyce’s first date with Nora Barnacle, an illiterate hotel maid who became the author’s long-time companion and years later his beloved wife. Although Joyce was no longer as young as Stephen Dedalus is portrayed in Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and Stephen in Ulysses has not yet proved himself as a writer and artist, Joyce nonetheless identified closely with Stephen Dedalus. Stephen’s moodiness, his egocentrism, and his creative puns and extensive web of literary and religious allusions parallel Joyce’s own manner of thinking and speaking and express the author’s feelings about Ireland and Catholicism.

Allusion
There are thousands of literary allusions in Ulysses, the countless corollaries to Homer’s epic being only one constellation of correspondences. One recurrent allusion is to Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The play is mentioned in the first episode, with comparisons drawn between Stephen’s moodiness and the depressed self-absorption of Prince Hamlet and between the Danish castle and the Martello Tower. The allusion to Hamlet is prominent also in the Scylla and Charybdis episode, which takes place at the National Library. Here, Stephen Dedalus expounds on his biographical reading of Hamlet, basing his theory on suppositional information about Shakespeare’s life. The theory, which he admits not believing himself, argues that Shakespeare identified with King Hamlet’s ghost, that Prince Hamlet is aligned with Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, who died as a child, and that Queen Gertrude is the equivalent of the unfaithful Ann Hathaway. Using this play as a referent and embedding this theory in the novel, Joyce capitalizes on certain themes well known to readers familiar with Shakespeare’s play. Parallels are suggested between the deceased King Hamlet, the betrayed husband and father of Prince Hamlet, and Leopold Bloom, who has an unfaithful wife and serves somewhat as a surrogate father for Stephen. There are other allusions to Hamlet: Stephen is apparently ousted by the so-called usurper Buck Mulligan (just as Hamlet’s ascension to the throne is thwarted by his uncle, Claudius); and the tentative step-father relationship Stephen forms with Bloom may be an inexact reference to Hamlet’s uneasy relationship with Claudius. The literary allusion offers a point of departure or contrast by which the present text can be understood. This is a novel much about a son’s longing for a father (Homer set it up that way to begin with), and Hamlet is a Renaissance referent that also explores this theme. Joyce toys with the ideas of paternity and legacy and examines the forces that disrupt context and inheritance, situating his novel within the classical framework and extending it to Shakespeare’s play, among probably hundreds of other well-known and lesser-known texts, all in order to place his novel in a literary tradition of which it is a product and which it aims to reroute. His assumption throughout is that the reader has read as much as he has.

Compare and Contrast

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  • 1900s: The eighteenth-century Martello Tower in which James Joyce lives in 1904 is a rented apartment, one of many small defensive forts built along Dublin Bay to defend the island against possible attack by Napoleon.

    Today: The Martello Tower is the site of the James Joyce Museum, a tourist stop for people who want to walk in the footsteps of Stephen Dedalus and Leopold Bloom.

  • 1900s: Ireland is predominantly a one-religion country with 85 percent of its population devout Catholics.

    Today: Still predominantly Catholic, Ireland is increasingly secular, and prohibitions by the Catholic Church on reproduction matters are ignored by increasing numbers of Irish people.

1900s: While estimates on Irish consumption of alcohol are unavailable, the pub serves as a daily meeting place where the Irish drink, discuss local matters and politics, and sing along with musicians who gather together informally.

Today: Between 1992 and 2002, estimates place the consumption rate of alcohol among the Irish as among the highest in Europe at 14.2 liters per adult annually.

Media Adaptations

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An audio book abridgement of Ulysses, read by Jim Norton and Marcella Riordan, became available in 1995 from Naxos. The four cassettes are in total five hours long.

In 1967, Joseph Strick directed Ulysses, starring Milo O’Shea in the role of Leopold Bloom. As of 2007, this film was available on DVD.

In 2006, Odyssey Pictures released Bloom: All of Life in One Extraordinary Day, directed by Sean Walsh and starring Stephen Rea as Leopold Bloom.

Bibliography and Further Reading

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Sources
Bell, Robert H., “Bloomsday at 100,” in Commonweal, Vol. 131, No. 10, May 21, 2004, pp. 15–17.

Connolly, Cyril, “Joyce Remembered,” in New Statesman, Vol. 128, No. 4464, November 29, 1999, p. 55.

Delaney, Frank, James Joyce’s Odyssey: A Guide to the Dublin of “Ulysses,” Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1981, pp. 9, 10, 18, 21, 89, 166, 176.

Ellmann, Richard, Ulysses on the Liffey, Oxford University Press, 1972, pp. xi, xiii, xvii.

Gifford, Don, and Robert J. Seidman, “Ulysses” Annotated: Notes for James Joyce’s “Ulysses,” University of California Press, 1988, p. 16.

Hederman, Mark Patrick, “{Bloomsday at 100},” in Commonweal, Vol. 131, No. 10, May 21, 2004, pp. 17–18.

Holman, C. Hugh, and William Harmon, A Handbook to Literature, Macmillan, 1986, p. 484.

Joyce, James, Ulysses, Vintage Books, 1990.

“Pull Out His Eyes, Apologize: James Joyce and His Interpreters,” in Economist, Vol. 322, No. 7742, January 18, 1992, p. 91.

Schwarz, Daniel R., “Joyce’s Schema for Ulysses,” in Reading Joyce’s “Ulysses,” St. Martin’s Press, 1987, pp. 277–80.

Wilson, Edmund, Review of Ulysses, in New Republic, July 5, 1922, http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=classic&s=Wilson070522 (accessed July 27, 2006).

Further Reading
Bulson, Eric, James Joyce: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2006. This introduction presents the essential information that will make reading Joyce’s works easier for the beginner.

Emig, Rainer, ed., “Ulysses”: James Joyce, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. This collection of recent essays gives an overview of scholarship on Joyce’s novel and the divergent readings the novel has generated. Among the theoretical approaches included are gender and deconstruction.

Homer, Odyssey, translated by Robert Fagles, Penguin Group, 2006. Homer’s classical epic of the mythic journey home by Odysseus is translated by Fagles into modern idiom, making this the edition to choose for a first read.

Kertész, Imre, Kaddish for a Child Not Born, translated by Christopher C. Wilson and Katharina M. Wilson, Northwestern University Press, 1997. This whole novel is a single, unbroken interior monologue in which the protagonist, a Holocaust survivor, reflects on his past, his childhood, a failed marriage, and his decision not to have children.

Bibliography

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Benstock, Bernard, ed. Critical Essays on James Joyce’s “Ulysses.” Boston: G. K. Hall, 1989. Contains a cross-section of criticism from the early to the more recent. Special emphasis is given to the “Nausicaa” episode.

Ellman, Richard. James Joyce. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. Widely considered the finest literary biography of the twentieth century. Contains extensive discussion and analysis of Ulysses. Highly recommended.

Gilbert, Stuart. James Joyce’s “Ulysses.” New York: Vintage Books, 1955. Still highly valuable. Covers the novel chapter by chapter; discusses in useful outlines many of the schemata underlying the novel. A good starting point.

Gillespie, Michael Patrick, and Paula F. Gillespie. Recent Criticism of James Joyce’s “Ulysses”: An Analytical Review. Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2000. A survey of, with commentary on, Ulysses scholarship, especially since 1970.

Kenner, Hugh. “Ulysses”: A Study. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. A substantial contribution from a preeminent literary critic; discusses the plot of the novel thoroughly. Equally useful for the beginning or the repeat reader. Bibliography, appendices.

Thornton, Weldon. Voices and Values in Joyce’s “Ulysses.” Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. An anti-relativistic study of the novel.

Wilson, Edmund. Axel’s Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870-1930. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1931. Discusses modernist writers. The chapter on Joyce contains an excellent summary of Ulysses. Places Joyce’s artistic and technical achievement in a historical context.

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