The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The first of Shakespeare's romantic comedies, The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been criticized for its problematic plot development and uneven verse. Mostly studied as an example of the fledgling playwright's early work, Verona has been disparaged by critics for several reasons. Scholars have been highly critical of the hasty ending of the play's last act—proof that either Shakespeare composed the play in a hurry to fill a gap in his theater company's repertoire or that he did not write the play at all. The authorship controversy is further intensified by the fact that The Two Gentlemen of Verona was apparently never performed during Shakespeare's lifetime. Also, there are no contemporary records of the play among Shakespeare's other surviving works. Regardless, the play does address many themes that are common to Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, placing it squarely in the courtly love tradition. Most modern scholarship on the play focuses on discussion of its shortcomings and its influence on Shakespeare's later works. Clifford Leech (1969) notes in his introduction to the Arden edition of The Two Gentlemen of Verona that, despite its problems, the play has many complex elements and should be studied as a guide to Shakespeare's later works, particularly The Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet, and As You Like It.
Typical of romantic comedies, The Two Gentlemen of Verona focuses on relationships. In addition to the romantic relationships between the play's main protagonists, critics have also studied its other depictions of familial interactions. Richard J. Jaarsma (1972) notes that there are interesting parallels between the father-daughter relationships presented in The Two Gentlemen of Verona and King Lear. In particular, Jaarsma notes Lear's reaction to Cordelia's supposed lack of love for him and compares it to the Duke of Milan's reaction against Sylvia. Patriarchal and male-female relationships are also the focus of Lori Shroeder Haslem's (1994) essay discussing The Two Gentlemen of Verona and The Merchant of Venice. In particular, Haslem cites Verona as an example of a play that highlights the plight of women in a patriarchal world. Such women, Haslem argues, find release and closure only in the confines of private conversations with other women. Haslem also examines the contrast Shakespeare developed between the male and female worlds in his works—worlds in which female complicity and communication become central to maintaining the surrounding traditional, patriarchal structure.
As noted above, no account exists of The Two Gentlemen of Verona's performance during Shakespeare's lifetime. The first record of a performance of the play occurred a century and a half after his death, when David Garrick—a noted eighteenth-century actor and manager—directed an altered version of the play. In modern times, the play has seen a number of stagings, though most have been confined to British provincial and American regional theaters. In his review of a 1983 production of Verona by the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Arthur Holmberg (1983) notes that this particular production helped him gain a new appreciation for Shakespeare's early works, and cites the intimacy of the small auditorium as one of the main reasons for the production's success. Gary Taylor (1999) reviews Richard Rose's 1998 Stratford Festival production of Verona. Taylor contends that although the production was imaginatively staged, it was unsuccessful at engaging the audience. Robert Smallwood (1999) lauds the 1998 Royal Shakespeare Company production of Verona directed by Edward Hall. Smallwood commends the production's interesting and complex interpretation of the play, particularly its powerful portrayal of the often troublesome final scene.
SOURCE: Holmberg, Arthur. “The Two Gentlemen of Verona: Shakespearean Comedy as a Rite of Passage.” Queen's Quarterly 90, no. 1 (spring 1983): 33-44.
[In the following review, Holmberg praises the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama production of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, noting that elaborate costumes and stage backgrounds are not necessary to enjoy an enthusiastic performance of this play.]
Drama is the one literary genre that cannot be properly appreciated in either a classroom or an armchair. It is conceived as a spectacle and written to be seen, and the word theater derives from the Greek verb to look at. I always begin...
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SOURCE: Smallwood, Robert. “Shakespeare Performances in England, 1998.” In Shakespeare Survey 52 (1999): 230-31.
[In the following excerpt, Smallwood lauds Edward Hall's staging of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, particularly the production's powerful interpretation of the play's final scene.]
Awkwardness, even ineptness, has been perceived also in The Two Gentlemen of Verona and this has led to its being regarded as Shakespeare's earliest comedy; it was certainly Edward Hall's directorial début at Stratford when his production opened in February and ‘double first’ turned out not to be too unapt for a searching, challenging production, with the...
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SOURCE: Taylor, Gary. “Theatrical Proximities: The Stratford Festival 1998.” Shakespeare Quarterly 50, no. 3 (autumn 1999): 340.
[In the following excerpt, Taylor asserts that Richard Rose's production of The Two Gentlemen of Verona left the audience uninvolved and disengaged.]
The Two Gentlemen of Verona was jolly-on-a-trolley, full of high spirits, high voices, clever gimmicks, clever speeches. On at least one occasion it literally filled the Festival cavern: the first act ended and the intermission began with the sound of an airplane circling low overhead and leaflets dropping from the ceiling, which turned out to be “Wanted” posters for the...
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SOURCE: Leech, Clifford. Introduction to The Arden Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare: The Two Gentlemen of Verona, edited by Clifford Leech, pp. lii-lxxv. London: Methuen and Co., 1969.
[In the following excerpt, Leech presents a critical evaluation of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, including an analysis of plot and characters, as well as an evaluation of the play's place among Shakespeare's other works.]
VI. THE COMEDY
The Two Gentlemen of Verona has been the recipient of indulgence rather than praise. Rowe, noting that it immediately follows The Tempest in the Folio, was sure that it was written long before that...
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SOURCE: Rowse, A. L. Introduction to The Contemporary Shakespeare Series: Antony and Cleopatra, Measure for Measure, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Troilus and Cressida, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Vol. V, edited by A. L. Rowse, pp. 505-10. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1986.
[In the following essay, Rowse provides a brief overview of The Two Gentlemen of Verona, tracing a connection between contemporary events in Shakespeare's life and the action of the play.]
The Two Gentlemen of Verona is Shakespeare's first experiment in romantic comedy, but its prime interest is its autobiographical significance. He had already shown his range and...
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SOURCE: Jaarsma, Richard J. “The ‘Lear Complex’ in The Two Gentlemen of Verona.” Literature and Psychology 22, no. 4 (1972): 199-202.
[In the following essay, Jaarsma examines the father-daughter relationship in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, drawing a parallel with the relationship between King Lear and Cordelia.]
Certain intriguing parallels between the father-daughter confrontation in The Two Gentlemen of Verona and King Lear buttress the claims by psychological critics that Lear's violent reaction to Cordelia's “failure” to show her love for him stems from unconscious sexual motives. According to this reading, Lear's rage at...
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SOURCE: Haslem, Lori Schroeder. “‘O Me, the Word Choose!’: Female Voice and Catechetical Ritual in The Two Gentlemen of Verona and The Merchant of Venice.” Shakespeare Studies 22 (1994): 122-40.
[In the following excerpt, Haslem analyzes the significance of Shakespeare's use of female friendships and communication in a largely patriarchal setting, such as that presented in The Two Gentlemen of Verona.]
Whenever women meet privately and talk, says Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex, they construct a “counter-universe” which privileges female values not normally accorded a place within a patriarchal-valued universe.1 To...
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SOURCE: Timpane, John. “‘I am but a foole, looke you’: Launce and the Social Functions of Humor.” In The Two Gentlemen of Verona: Critical Essays, edited by June Schlueter, pp. 189-211. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996.
[In the following essay, Timpane surveys the significance of humor in Renaissance society, particularly focusing on the character of Launce in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona.]
Humor performs a wide range of social functions, some of which contribute to the way in which social institutions reorganize. Humor keeps ideas in circulation; it can also generate new ideas, float hypothetical consensus, and clarify problems. Because it...
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Bentley, Greg. “Shakespeare's Two Gentlemen of Verona.” Explicator 46, no. 4 (summer 1988): 7-9.
Studies Valentine's pun about Sebastian/Julia at the end of the play.
Feingold, Michael. “Wading Game.” Village Voice 39, no. 35 (30 August 1994): 81.
Faults Adrian Hall's production of The Two Gentlemen of Verona for its lack of focus and direction, noting that staging the play against the backdrop of Central Park took away from the performance, despite the skill of some of the actors.
Hutchings, Geoffrey. “The Two Gentlemen of Verona.” In Shakespeare in...
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