Download PDF PDF Page Citation Cite Share Link Share

Last Updated September 5, 2023.

A theme can be defined as the message of a work of literature, or the central idea or belief about life conveyed by the writer. In his poem "Trumpet Player," Langston Hughes seeks to convey a message about these three important themes.

One theme of this poem is struggle and suffering. The speaker of the poem uses powerful imagery to communicate a feeling of struggle and suffering to the reader, and this struggle is specific to the experience of African Americans. In the first stanza, the speaker describes the trumpet player's face as possessing of "dark moons of weariness" that are linked to terrible memories of slavery. In this way, the speaker starts the poem with a sense of the fatigue that comes from great suffering. Later in the poem, the speaker compares the effect of music to the effect of a "hypodermic needle," a medical instrument that provides relief in a sharp and painful way; the suffering of the speaker is so great that even painkillers cannot be administered painlessly.

The meaning of music is another theme of this poem. Music and other creative pursuits often have a soothing effect on the artist. In this poem, the musician finds relief and comfort from his suffering in the playing of the trumpet and in listening to the music that comes from his efforts. Music is compared to "honey/mixed with liquid fire" and "ecstasy/distilled from old desire," images which have positive connotations for the speaker. Langston Hughes is widely considered a jazz poet of the Harlem Renaissance, so his connection to music and his appreciation for the healing effects of music is a strong one; the trumpet is a jazz instrument, and even the poem's structure echoes musical forms.

History's impact on the present is another prominent theme of this poem. The speaker of the poem alludes to the slave trade with images like "slave ships," "the crack of whips," and even "a head of vibrant hair." Enslaved African people would have traveled the Atlantic on ships, where they were forced to endure torturous maltreatment and objectification. By using these images, the speaker ensures that the reader understands the source of the suffering African Americans experienced in the past and the ongoing struggle to reclaim their dignity and humanity in the eyes of white society, which carries on into the present.

See eNotes Ad-Free

Start your 48-hour free trial to get access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts.

Get 48 Hours Free Access