To the Lighthouse

by Virginia Woolf

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The Window: Chapters 1-2

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Last Updated April 13, 2023.

Mrs. Ramsay sits in the living room of her summer home, which is in the Hebrides archipelago and just off the coast of Scotland. The Ramsays’ summer house is quite large, but its once-grand appearance is hindered by the general state of disrepair that has consumed the home's interior and exterior. Their home is located close to the sea, and the proximity to the beach has stripped the house of its vibrant paint, giving it a tired, sand-swept appearance. 

As she sits, Mrs. Ramsay watches her six-year-old son James cut out images from a catalog of military and naval equipment. James quickly grows bored with the task and asks to go sailing; Mrs. Ramsay promises that they will take a sailing trip to the nearby lighthouse the next day if the weather proves favorable. Her words are gentle and conciliatory, attempting to calm her excitable son. However, Mr. Ramsay, staring gloomily out the living room window, pessimistically declares that the weather will be poor, disappointing James severely. 

Next to Mr. Ramsay stands Charles Tansley, a student of Mr. Ramsey’s who has accompanied him to their summer home, who echoes Mr. Ramsey’s assessment of the weather and agrees that there shall be no sailing tomorrow. His words annoy Mrs. Ramsay, and she considers the resentment she and her children harbor toward this pretentious but nervous man. 

This brief interaction leads Mrs. Ramsay through a meandering train of thought, pondering her life, appearance, and family dynamic. Absentmindedly, she recalls that she must walk into town and post some letters, and this interjection of daily life breaks her reverie. She invites Charles to join her, and he readily agrees.  As the unlikely pair departs, Mrs. Ramsay interrupts Mr. Carmichael as he lounges on the grass to ask if he needs anything from town; he rejects her offer, so she and Charles continue. 

As Mrs. Ramsay and Charles walk to town, they pass by an advertisement for a circus. Mrs. Ramsay excitedly exclaims that they should all go; Charles’s response to the prospect of the circus is far more reserved, and he explains that, as a child, his family did not go to the circus. The admission seems intimate to Charles, who feels that, by saying so, he is telling Mrs. Ramsay about the difficulty of his childhood and the strife he has faced. She seems to understand that this comment contains a deeper meaning and feels unexpected compassion for Charles. For his part, Charles finds the conversation invigorating, feeling thrilled by this confession; his proximity to Mrs. Ramsay’s interested gaze leads him to imagine himself accomplishing great things. 

Mrs. Ramsay and Charles step beyond the houses lining the seaside and arrive at the quay, where the view of the sea and lighthouse stretches uninhibited to the horizon. Mrs. Ramsay stops to admire the view, expressing appreciation for the stunning dunes and glittering bay. As they take in the scenery, they notice an artist carefully painting the scene. 

Mrs. Ramsay comments that the area has become popular for painters because a famous artist made it the subject of a recent painting. However, her words carry a bitter note; the work of these new painters is derivative and flat, she explains. They lack the love and respect with which painters of a previous era once rendered these scenes. Charles, captivated by Mrs. Ramsay's unassuming charisma, attempts to see the beauty she sees and realizes the contrast between his intellectual concerns and her refined sense of aesthetics and acute awareness.

When Mrs. Ramsay completes her errand, Charles sees her with a clarity that has previously evaded him. Looking at her now, Charles imagines that she is the most beautiful woman he has ever encountered and swells with pride because he is accompanying her and carrying her bag. Mrs. Ramsay recalls his early words of dismissal, telling James that he must wait to go sailing; as Charles revels in the luxury of her company, she thinks that he is an “odious little man.”

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Chapters 3 and 4 Summary