Historical Context


Colonial Literature and Independence
Although the conquistadors destroyed the libraries of...

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Literary Style

Excepting a few geniuses—like Joanot Martorell and Victor Hugo whose Les Miserables Vargas Llosa read while...

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Bibliography and Further Reading

Castro-Klaren, Sara, Understanding Mario Vargas Llosa, University of South Carolina Press, 1990.


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(Masterpieces of American Fiction)

Booker, M. Keith. Vargas Llosa Among the Postmodernists. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. A thorough examination of Vargas Llosa’s works from a postmodern point of view. Includes a comparison of modernism and postmodernism, as well as extensive notes.

Castro-Klarén, Sara. “Mario Vargas Llosa.” In Latin American Writers, edited by Carlos A. Solé and Maria I. Abreau. Vol 3. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1989. Offers a comprehensive and critical discussion of Vargas Llosa’s life and works. Provides a selected bibliography for further reading.

Gerdes, Dick. “Mario Vargas...

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Compare and Contrast

1960s: In response to the Cuban Revolution, a force of U.S. CIA-trained Cuban exiles invade Cuba unsuccessfully in 1961 (an incident...

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Topics for Further Study

The initiation rituals described in the novel are also known by the term "hazing." Research the role of hazing in neighborhoods, gangs,...

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What Do I Read Next?

In his second novel, La casa verde (1966; translation by Gregory Rabassa published as The Green House 1968), Vargas Llosa again...

(The entire section is 656 words.)