Through the Ivory Gate

(Literary Masterpieces, Critical Compilation)

Through the Ivory Gate is a subtle and sensitive tale set in Akron, Ohio, at the end of the Vietnam era, with flashbacks to the 1950’s and early 1960’s. Rita Dove’s third book of poems, Thomas and Beulah (1986), won a Pulitzer Prize; she is the author of four books of poems and a collection of short fiction. One of the youngest Pulitzer Prize winners, Dove has also been recognized with a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship. Her poetry is both intellectually challenging and emotionally satisfying, charged with what critic Arnold Rampersad praised as an “almost uncanny sense of peace and grace”—a description that applies as well to her first novel.

Through the Ivory Gate has the qualities novels written by poets often share—it contains lyrical description, it is not organized in a straightforward linear fashion, and its plot is not its main appeal. Patches of near-poetry surface in the narrative, mainly in the main character’s addresses to groups on the subject of puppets and their meanings. Reading this novel provides the kind of pleasure richly regionalist works have to offer, as well as giving a vivid impression of what it was like to grow up as an African American girl in the Midwest of the 1950’s and early 1960’s. Its title, taken from The Odyssey, refers to the description of the two gates through which dreams may come:

For fleeting dreams have two gates: one is fashioned of horn and one of ivory. Those which pass through the one of sawn ivory are deceptive, bringing tidings which come to naught, but those which issue from the one of polished horn bring true results when a mortal sees them.

Memories as well as dreams are deceptive in this story, which weaves art and reality, illusion and truth, to create a fable of personal and social healing through art, what James Hillman might describe as a “healing fiction.”

Rita Dove was born and raised in Akron, Ohio, the setting of Through the Ivory Gate. Her description of the area, however, takes second place to the psychological realism that makes not only the main character, Virginia King, strongly convincing, but gives the ring of truth to the relationships and transactions within the many-layered society depicted.

The plot has an element of suspense to it, although the story line is not what keeps the reader’s involvement level high. The novel is set at the end of the Vietnam War. After finishing college and spending some time with a traveling troupe of puppeteers, Virginia returns to her hometown to teach puppetry as an “artist in residence” at the public grade school. Her life is in flux and decisions need to be made: She has trained to be an actress, but there are few calls for African American actresses. What should she do? The “artist in residence” program provides her with some breathing space, but she will shortly need to plan her life in a specific direction. Defining her goals will be difficult because her sense of self is uncertain, partly owing to the obstacles and prejudices she has encountered in growing up in the 1950’s, but also because of her family life. She has never understood why her family suddenly moved from Ohio to Arizona and why they seemed personally changed after this move; her young adulthood has been shadowed by this mystery. Her return to her former home will help her solve it, and she believes that dissipating this cloud will bring her one step further toward being in control of her life.

The deft use of flashbacks allows Dove to weave into the present action scenes from Virginia’s early childhood, her adolescent years in Arizona, her college experience, her first love affair, and her adventures with the traveling puppet troupe. Virginia’s perspective shows concretely the difficulties encountered by an African American student in dealing with her white counterparts, even those favorably disposed toward her. Her white friend Kelly always wants to tag along with Virginia, but Virginia wants to spend time alone with her black friends because

…if you were scattered like raisins among the white swirls of coeds during the week, it made you feel better if you could complain about being caught out in the rain, knowing the others understood how disastrous that was, all the kinks to comb out? How could they laugh about getting ash if they had to explain it to a white girl?

“What’s ash?” Kelly wanted to know.

Virginia sighed. “Dry skin. On darker complexions, dry and flaky skin looks gray. Like ash.”

“Oh.” Then: “Now, that didn’t take much effort, did it?”

Relationships between Virginia and whites tend to be friendly but formal, and her early memories are clouded by an especially hurtful insult that came unexpectedly from a child she thought was a good friend. But this is not a hostile book; its conclusion points toward healing rather than further disunity. The means or direction of healing is found, surprisingly, in the motif of puppets and puppetry.

The puppets dominate the story. Dolls, masks, and puppets, are a constantly present focus from the first page on. The child Virginia plays with dolls, trying without success to find a doll with which she can fully identify. Growing up, Virginia expresses herself through music, although she has difficulty finding an instrument to be her “voice.” As a young woman, she tries on roles through acting but cannot find many roles for African Americans. As a puppeteer, she creates a kind of magic. Here she is able to create her own image, literally a puppet she names Gina and allows to speak for her, figuratively a candid and direct person who has no social fears and can handle any situation. Virginia, however, is still looking for a means to speak in her own voice and use her full capabilities.

The opening scene shows the young child Virginia wanting a doll that is a parody of the African. To her plea, “Just a doll a funny doll, Grandma, can’t I...

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Through the Ivory Gate

(Critical Survey of Contemporary Fiction)

Rita Dove has published three volumes of poetry, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning collection of narrative poems, THOMAS AND BEULAH (1986), and a book of short fiction, but THROUGH THE IVORY GATE is her first novel. She brings her poetic skills to bear on this subtle and complex story of a bittersweet homecoming.

Entertainer and aspiring actress Virginia King has never understood why her childhood was interrupted by a sudden move from Akron, Ohio to Arizona and an apparently simultaneous change in her parents’ characters. Coming back to Akron to teach puppetry in the public school, she is able to fill in pieces of her family’s past that will help her in her search for self-definition. The family secrets she uncovers do not make her happy, but they do help her toward freedom.

The deft use of flashbacks allows Dove to weave into the present action scenes from King’s childhood in Akron, her years in Arizona, her college experience, and her first attempts to use her education as a member of the traveling troupe “Puppets and People.” Through King’s perspective the reader sees the obvious and hidden prejudices of the time and place, and the various ways King deals with these barriers to her career as an actress and her basic sense of self.

The most compelling presence in this novel, however, may be the puppets. Puppet lore and puppet activities dominate the present action, entrancing even readers who have been indifferent to this subject. The puppets become living beings as well as the various images we create for one another and ourselves. This is a book for rereading.


Brody, Jennifer. “Genre Fixing: An Interview with Rita Dove.” Poetry Flash 238 (January, 1993): 1, 9-11, 22-23. Dove discusses how writing her novel was different from writing poems. She also discusses factors that influenced her work.

Callaloo 14 (Spring, 1991). This special issue contains several articles on Rita Dove’s poetry and an interview with her. Articles by Bonnie Costello, Ekaterini Georgoudaki, and Mohammed-B Teleb-Khyer help to place Dove’s poetry in context with that of other African American women writers. These articles also define themes and concerns that are present also in her novel.

Dove, Rita. Interview by Grace Cavalieri. The American Poetry Review 24 (March/April, 1995): 11-14. A revealing interview where Dove talks about her childhood, her parents and grandparents, and her work. Although Dove does not specifically mention Through the Ivory Gate, this conversation is helpful in pinpointing common...

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Form and Content

(Masterpieces of Women's Literature)

Rita Dove’s Through the Ivory Gate uses a series of flashbacks that weave a tapestry of narratives that span three generations of African American women. At the center of the narratives is Virginia, a musician, artist, and puppeteer whose memories generate the flashbacks that serve as counterpoints to a present narrative about Virginia, who works with children in a public school, teaching them how to use their imaginations through puppetry. She returns to Akron, Ohio, her childhood home, to make contact with her memories and with at least two important people in her life—her Aunt Carrie and her Grandma Evans. Virginia, a well-educated and cultured woman, passionately and unpretentiously immerses herself in the study...

(The entire section is 698 words.)


(Masterpieces of Women's Literature)

Dove’s distinction with this work lies in her desire to explore an element of the black woman’s experience that is not often explored in much of American literature. Dove’s protagonist is, like Dove, an intelligent and profoundly educated woman whose commitment to the study and performance of art defies stereotypical perceptions of the African American woman as nonintellectual and wholly “passionate.” Dove, unlike a number of black women novelists, locates her work in the American heartland, the Midwest, and situates her characters as the typical figures described as the backbone of America—middle-class college-educated people. In so doing, she succeeds in broadening the reader’s perception of what constitutes the African American experience.

This novel celebrates Virginia’s ability to assert her right to make her own decisions about her life and its direction. The characters of three other women in the work reflect this quality of independence and strength: Aunt Carrie, the isolated and victimized woman who has an affair with her brother; Grandmother Evans, a strong black woman who determines whom she is going to marry and further determines how her husband must behave in relation to her through force of arms; and Belle, Virginia’s mother, who guides the family away from Akron and the negative histories associated with it to a new life in Arizona. Indeed, these women are all pivotal to the work, and they literally shape the lives of all the men in the work.

As a novel about art and artists, Through the Ivory Gate is a timely work that chronicles a period in American history when the role of women was assuming a distinctive identity that would affect society in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. Dove shows this movement to be grounded on the efforts of women from decades before the 1970’s.


(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Hoffert, Barbara. Review of Through the Ivory Gate, by Rita Dove. Library Journal 117 (August, 1992): 146. Quibbles about the need for “tighter” prose but praises the images and the poetic quality of the novel.

Kitchen, Judith, Stan Sanvel Rubin, and Earl G. Ingersoll. “A Conversation with Rita Dove.” Black American Literature Forum 20 (Fall, 1986): 227-240. Although the interview focuses on Dove’s poetry, many of her remarks also concern her fiction. She notes that “language does shape our perceptions” and comments on the results of carelessness with relationships. The interview is followed by “The First Suite,” described as “from a novel in progress,” which is Through the Ivory Gate.

Pereira, Malin. Rita Dove’s Cosmopolitanism. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Comprehensive, chronological analysis of Dove’s work in every genre, from poetry to fiction prose to nonfiction. Uses the trope of cosmopolitanism to examine ways in which Dove transcends narrow racial categories of literary analysis.

Prose, Francine. “Pulled by the Strings of the Past.” Washington Post Book World 202 (October 11, 1992): 5. Focuses on the theme of returning to the past. Maintains that there are no villains, just “fallout” from human frailty, in the novel, which she faults for its long lectures on music and puppetry.

Ryman, Geoff. Review of Through the Ivory Gate, by Rita Dove. The New York Times Book Review, October 11, 1992, 11. A lengthy, sympathetic review that notes that Virginia’s quest for a male partner has a larger social dimension. Finds a slight but effectual treatment of race relations. Observes that the novel is essentially happy and criticizes Virginia’s character as too perfect.

Schneider, Steven. “Coming Home: An Interview with Rita Dove.” Iowa Review 19 (Fall, 1989): 112-123. Discusses Dove’s Akron roots but is most valuable for her comments about the literary establishment being unfair to black writers and about the necessity for revising the literary canon to include more female and minority writers.

Taleb-Khyar, Mohamed B. “An Interview with Maryse Condé and Rita Dove.” Callaloo 14 (Spring, 1991): 347-366. Dove’s discussion of her family, especially her chemist father at Goodyear, identifies the autobiographical nature of Through the Ivory Gate. Dove also talks about black militancy, the “trauma of color,” and the notion that African Americans are “bilingual” in their possession of two sets of cultural values. Although she describes herself politically as a feminist, she opposes didactic or propagandistic fiction.