Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 294
The characters of Gertrude Stein's Three Lives (published in 1909) center around the lives of three women: Anna, Melanctha, and Lena. Though their lives to not intersect, all take place in the fictional city of Bridgeport.
Anna is a German-born working-class woman, who spends her life working in many households. Her overly-generous nature makes it difficult for her to make ends meet. She dies while working in the household of Miss Mathilda, until the latter leaves for Europe. Only having loved one woman, the widow, Mrs. Lehntman, Anna dies during an operation.
Melanctha is a mulatto woman. She befriends numerous people from her town, including Rose Johnson, her friend from church whose baby she helped deliver, though the baby did not live long. As a child herself, Melanctha did not like her parents, and her parents resented her. Melacntha lived a sexually promiscuous life, going out with men from the upper classes; however, she never allows them to get too close, until she meets one Jefferson Campbell, a shy, black, doctor. They split up eventually owing to very different personalities. Melanctha first enjoys her freedom, then carries on with Jem Richards, who bet on horses for a living. Melanctha, however, dies single and alone from consumption.
Lena Mainz, the final protagonist, comes to Bridgeport from Germany with her cousin. She is teased a bit as a servant girl, but eventually marries Herman Kreder, the son of two stingy parents, who force him to get married against his will. Herman doesn't like the company of women, and Lena has no interest in marrying; nevertheless, the two eventually marry. Lena bears three children whom Herman loves tenderly, though Lena feels as though her husband doesn't love her. She dies giving birth to her fourth child, a still-born.
Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 888
Anna Federner, a middle-aged domestic servant, “the good Anna” who provides the title for the first of the three stories in the book. She is a hardworking and clean immigrant German woman who fills her life with service to others. Through caring, she exercises a measure of control over her employers, her dogs, and the young girls who are her assistants in the domestic sphere. Anna is not sophisticated or educated and is used by others because of her desire to be needed. She literally works herself to death being good to others.
Miss Mary Wadsmith
Miss Mary Wadsmith, Anna’s initial employer in Bridgeport. She is a large, fair, and helpless woman, trying to rear her brother’s orphaned children. She lets Anna make all the decisions that pertain to the family. She cannot control her niece, who, as she matures, challenges Anna’s control and drives her away.
Miss Mathilda, Anna’s second employer. She is a large, careless woman who needs Anna because Anna’s willingness to take over the entire domestic sphere frees her to pursue other interests. She listens to Anna’s problems and offers the kind of sympathetic understanding proper to a relationship based on class difference. Her interests finally take her to Europe (as the author’s own interests did), and Anna is left behind, totally bereaved.
Mrs. Lehntman, Anna’s friend and the only love of her life besides her dogs. She is Anna’s opposite in her easygoing approach to life and her failure to care about strict codes of behavior. She is a widow and a midwife who acquires an extra child without thinking about financial responsibilities. She borrows money from Anna and others that she cannot repay and appears to be involved in illegal activities with a local doctor. Although she always lands on her feet, she finally alienates Anna.
Melanctha Herbert, who is eighteen years old at...
(The entire section contains 1182 words.)
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