Themes and Meanings

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

The primary theme of “In the Thirtieth Year” is that of the egoism and isolation of a man who would close in on himself because of the pain a struggle for love would involve. He escapes the struggle into a smug self-satisfaction.

Cunningham powerfully portrays the seemingly reasonable choice of the speaker. The tone of the poem is also noteworthy, as Cunningham does not reveal the satiric nature of the poem directly; he describes the choice of heart for wife as if it were commonplace. It is only when the reader begins to look beyond the choice into its consequences that the poem can be seen in a very different light.

The poem as a whole portrays a complete relationship, bizarre as it is. It begins at the moment of the choice of the beloved. It develops into the closeness of an intimate relationship, swears fidelity, and finally completes itself with a mutual death.

The poem is a satirical exposure of a certain way of life. Cunningham does not satirize a specific individual but a more general type. The type that is represented here is one that seems to interest him frequently as a satirical subject. For example, in an earlier poem, “The Solipsist,” he writes of the type of person who recognizes no “others.” Everyone is subsumed into the demanding self. It is a position of absolute certainty that is achieved by the exclusion of the very existence of others.

It is interesting that in the same group of poems,...

(The entire section is 479 words.)