Epilogue Summary

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Last Updated on October 6, 2022, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 122

Grant wraps us his discussion by contemplating how knowledge has changed and evolved over the course of history. At one point scientists believed that dinosaurs probably had feathers, but recently they have reverted to thinking they probably had scales again. Scientists themselves, like Einstein, have sometimes stubbornly refused to accept new discoveries due to personal discomfort. In 1932, when people wanted self-assured and definitive authority from a leader, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt propounded an experimental method for devising policies instead. While this proposal initially drew criticism and ridicule, the economic depression was in time alleviated, and FDR and his policy method came to be popular enough to be reelected four times. Perhaps more things can benefit from being approached like an experiment.

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Chapter 11 Summary