Chapter 4 Summary

1951

When Henrietta Lacks’s cells arrived in George Gey's lab, his assistant, Mary Kubicek, was eating a sandwich. It was her job to handle new cell samples, but today she dawdled a while before beginning. These attempts to grow immortal human cells always took hours of tedious work, and thus far, they had always failed.

In spite of its failures, George Gey’s lab was state of the art for its time. Gey's wife, Margaret, had been instrumental in helping to overcome some of the most difficult obstacles to growing cells in culture. The first of these was that nobody knew exactly which ingredients were necessary in the liquid used for feeding cells. Slowly, over the course of years, the Geys had developed a recipe that included an array of ghastly ingredients:

the plasma of chickens, puree of calf fetuses, special salts, and blood from human umbilical cords.

Since they worked at a hospital, it was relatively easy to come by the cord blood. The rest of the ingredients were harder to procure, and George frequently visited slaughterhouses for cow fetuses and chicken blood. It was Margaret who developed the proper technique for sterilizing the chicken chest and shoving a syringe into its heart to obtain the blood; and it was Margaret who plucked and cooked the chickens if they happened to die from the stress of this procedure.

Margaret Gey was also responsible for maintaining sterility in Gey’s lab. She had been trained as a surgical nurse, and she brought the sterilization procedures from surgery rooms into the lab environment. The successful growth of the HeLa cells would not have been possible otherwise.

When Mary Kubicek started working on Henrietta Lacks's cells, she followed Margaret's sterility procedures to the letter. She sterilized her work station with hot steam before donning a clean surgical gown, mask, and gloves. When these preparations were finished, Mary entered the...

(The entire section is 539 words.)