The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Characters

John Boyne

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas Characters

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas key characters:

  • In The Boy in the Striped Pajamas, Bruno is the son of a Nazi commandant; he remains innocent of the horrors of the Holocaust and befriends a prisoner at the death camp.

  • Shmuel is a young Polish Jew who does not understand why he is in the concentration camp. He befriends Bruno and the two share many similarities in spite of their different circumstances.

  • Gretel is Bruno’s sister and a staunch supporter of Nazi propaganda.

  • Bruno’s mother is largely ignorant of what goes on in Auschwitz; after realizing that her husband is ordering Jews to be murdered in the gas chambers, she decides to move back to Berlin with her children.

  • Bruno’s father is proud of his high-ranking position in the German military. Despite his reverence for the Nazi party, he does try to shield his family from the horrors of the death camp.



Bruno is the son of a Nazi commandant who is forced to leave his home in Berlin and move to Auschwitz where his father has been reassigned. He is reluctant to leave Berlin where he has two good friends, is close to his grandparents, and lives in a lovely home. Bruno is characterized by an endearing childhood innocence which becomes especially poignant when he meets a young prisoner on the other side of a fence near his house. Bruno remains strikingly unaffected by the war and unmoved by the Nazi beliefs and propaganda which he confronts daily. This may well be due to his young age or the result of his character. In any case, Bruno represents man's capacity for kindness and compassion.


Shmuel is a young Polish Jew who is a prisoner in Auschwitz. Bruno meets him at a fence while exploring near his house. Shmuel is as innocent as Bruno and seems not to quite understand why he is a prisoner. Shmuel reveals that his mother is a teacher who speaks German (which she has taught him), French, Italian and English (which she plans to teach him). Until the deportation, Shmuel lived with his mother, father and brother above his father's watchmaking shop. He tells Bruno about how he came home from school one day to find his mother making armbands for the family which the Nazis forced them to wear. Bruno has a hard time comprehending some of the stories Shmuel tells him because it seems so unimaginable to him. Shmuel becomes worried once his father goes missing in the camp and asks for Bruno's help in finding him. Bruno's willingness to help his friend results in both of them dying at the merciless hands of the Nazis.

Bruno and Shmuel seem to lead parallel yet mutually exclusive lives. They share common interests, the same birthday, and a similar perspective on life. Their friendship is not just unlikely; it defies possibility. In a world and a time where people were being told what to think, who to hate and what relationships were acceptable, Bruno and Shmuel demonstrate how resistant and resilient children can be and how important kindness and compassion are.


Gretel, Bruno's older sister, annoys him a great deal; he refers to her as a "Hopeless Case" who does nothing but cause him grief. Gretel fancies herself far more mature and worldly than Bruno, despite her doll collection which would seem to symbolize her naivete. Gretel is increasingly interested in the beliefs and activities of the Nazi party and, after their move to Auschwitz, befriends one of the Nazi camp guards. In an effort to demonstrate her devotion and dedication to the ideals of the...

(The entire section is 1079 words.)