Discuss the illusion of justice theme in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

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The word "justice" doesn't appear in Shakespeare's The Tempest. This is likely because Prospero seeks revenge, not justice, against those who have wronged him. He doesn't treat anyone justly until very near end of the play.

Prospero seeks revenge against his brother, Antonio, and those who conspired with Antonio to usurp Prospero's dukedom of Milan. Prospero presents himself as a victim of injustice, but he doesn't seek to restore order so much as he seeks to control and punish Antonio and the others for usurping his dukedom and casting him adrift at sea with his daughter, Miranda.

Prospero's concept of justice is notably hypocritical. He complains bitterly about his treatment by Antonio, but he doesn't hesitate to treat others as unjustly as he's been treated.

Caliban was "king" of the island on which Prospero and Miranda landed until Prospero usurped Caliban's position, unjustly enslaved him, and confined him to a rock on the island. The only time he is allowed to leave is when Prospero has a task for him.

CALIBAN. ...This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother,
Which thou tak'st from me. ...
For I am all the subjects that you have,
Which first was mine own king, and here you sty me
In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me
The rest o‘th’ island. (1.2.394-395, 404-407)

Caliban plots to kill Prospero for usurping his position on the island. His revenge fantasy mirrors Prospero's desire for revenge against Antonio and the others who caused his shipwrecked state.

Prospero freed the spirit, Ariel, from a tree where it was imprisoned by Caliban's mother, Sycorax. He proceeded to take advantage of Ariel's gratitude and unjustly enslave it.

Prospero repeatedly threatens to again imprison Ariel in a tree if the spirit questions Prospero's wishes and authority.

PROSPERO. Dost thou forget
From what a torment I did free thee?. ...
If thou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak,
And peg thee in his knotty entrails till
Thou hast howled away twelve winters. (1.2.296-297, 347-349)

One of Prospero's plans is to lure Ferdinand, the son of the king of Naples, to the island. He wants to marry him to Miranda as a means of being restored to his dukedom. This plan is manipulative at best, and at worst it's wholly contemptuous of Ferdinand's and his own daughter's feelings.

Prospero treats Ferdinand like a slave, weakens him with his magic, and orders him to carry and stack thousands of logs for no just purpose.

Prospero doesn't limit his revenge to those who usurped his dukedom. He unjustly punishes everyone in the king of Naples's party who he shipwrecked on the island. Even those who played no part in the usurpation are not spared.

Arial makes Prospero realize that he has unjustly victimized everyone against whom he's attempted to avenge himself.

PROSPERO. [to Ariel] Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling
Of their afflictions, and shall not myself,
One of their kind, that relish all as sharply
Passion as they, be kindlier moved than thou art?
Though with their high wrongs I am struck to th’ quick,
Yet with my nobler reason ’gainst my fury
Do I take part. The rarer action is
In virtue than in vengeance. They being penitent,
The sole drift of my purpose doth extend
Not a frown further. (5.1.25-34)

Prospero vows to cease his sorcery, restore everyone's freedom, and restore order to the island.

PROSPERO. But this rough magic
I here abjure. ...I'll break my staff,
Bury it certain fathoms in the earth,
And deeper than did ever plummet sound
I'll drown my book. (5.1.55-62)

It is only when Prospero ceases to pursue his revenge against those who wronged him and releases his control over everyone on the island that he receives the justice that he seeks. When he ceases being a tyrant, he's restored to his rightful place as duke of Milan.

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