Sample Essay Outlines
The following theses and outlines are provided to help you construct successful paper topics and to organize essays which reflect the complexity of the text. These outlines can also aid your efforts to review the play’s critical themes and issues.
Many characters in The Taming of the Shrew take on different identities, while the behavior of two characters changes drastically by the end of the play. Describe three to four ways in which The Taming of the Shrew develops the idea that appearances should not be confused with reality.
I. Thesis Statement: In The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare develops the theme of appearances versus reality by means of the Induction, disguises, and changes in attitude of the major characters.
II. Appearance versus reality in the Induction
A. The Lord dresses Sly as a nobleman.
B. The Lord’s page, Bartholomew, is presented as Sly’s wife.
C. Crossdressing was used in original performances of Shrew.
1. Petruchio points to Kate as a boy twice.
2. Biondello alludes to Bianca as a boy with his pun on “appendix.”
3. Kate signals that she is really a boy in her long speech.
III. Disguises suggest that appearances cannot be relied upon.
A. Lucentio and Hortensio assume identities below their station.
B. Tranio and the Pedant pretend to be wealthy men.
C. Shakespeare uses the theme of “counterfeit supposes,” taken from another English playwright, as his own device.
IV. Remarkable shifts in behavior alert the audience to the possibility of masquerade and deception.
A. Petruchio flatters and then harrasses Kate, as if in a game.
B. Kate alters her behavior to please Petruchio, but the audience may not be convinced of her sincerity.
C. Petruchio seems interested only in appearances.
1. He explains to the men that he and Kate will fight openly while treating each other cordially in private.
2. He appears concerned more with his image before the other men than with developing a sincere relationship with Kate.
D. Grumio imitates Petruchio in an absurd way. This also suggests that Petruchio may be doing the same, but convincingly so.
E. Bianca behaves coyly, then becomes a shrewish wife at the play’s end.
V. Conclusion: Through the behavior and disguises of the characters, as well as the crossdressing on the Elizabethan stage, The Taming of the Shrew emphasizes that appearances are easily mistaken for reality, both in life and in the theater.
In The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio employs various strategies to trick or to coerce his wife into obedience. Describe the methods Petruchio uses to tame his “shrew,” and evaluate his effectiveness.
I. Thesis Statement: Though Petruchio employs several means of taming Kate, it is ultimately unclear how much success he enjoys.
II. Petruchio flatters Kate and uses reverse psychology to trick her into not only believing that he loves her, but also into being obedient to him.
A. Flattery in the wooing scene.
B. Petruchio defends Kate’s image before the other men.
C. Before the wedding banquet, Petruchio defends Kate against the other men, who, he pretends, are trying to steal his bride from him.
III. Petruchio physically forces Kate to accept him and to be obedient.
A. He starves her on her wedding night.
B. He humiliates and thereby humbles Kate.
1. Petruchio comes to his own wedding dressed in tatters.
2. He denies Kate a fashionable dress and cap.
3. Petruchio orders Kate to submit to him before the other husbands.
C. Petruchio will not let Kate have her way unless it accords with his plans.
1. He will not leave his country home until Kate agrees with his pronouncements about the time of day.
2. Petruchio vows to take Kate home on the day of Bianca’s wedding banquet unless Kate gives him a kiss in public.
IV. Petruchio plays psychological games with Kate in order to test her obedience.
A. He ignores whatever she says if it does not agree with his desires.
1. The wooing scene, alone and before the men
2. The dress and cap
B. He tests her obedience.
1. The time of day
(The entire section is 1,341 words.)