A Tale of Two Cities Themes
The main themes in A Tale of Two Cities are resurrection, self-sacrifice and selfishness, and revolution and retribution.
- Resurrection: Dr. Manette is “recalled to life” by his release from prison and reunion with Lucie, Charles Darnay escapes the guillotine, and Sydney Carton undergoes a form of spiritual resurrection just before his death.
- Self-sacrifice and selfishness: While the novel’s villains are distinguished by their selfish cruelty, its heroes are distinguished by their willingness to sacrifice themselves on behalf of others.
- Revolution and retribution: Dickens provides a vivid description of the Reign of Terror, which he portrays as the inevitable outcome of years of tyranny by the French aristocracy.
The first book of A Tale of Two Cities bears the title “Recalled to Life.” The words are those of the “Blazing strange message” that Jarvis Lorry asks Jerry Cruncher to deliver, and they apply first of all to Dr. Manette, who seems more dead than alive after eighteen years in the Bastille. There are repeated references to Dr. Manette being “buried alive,” and Lorry thinks of himself as one who is “on his way to dig someone out of a grave,” one of many such references to disinterment scattered through the text.
While Dr. Manette is rescued from a living death, the coffin in which Roger Cly was supposed to have been buried turns out to contain nothing but stones. The man himself is presumably alive and engaged in his old professions of espionage and laying information, and Sydney Carton foresees that he will eventually fall victim to the guillotine, along with his associate, John Barsad. The emptiness of the coffin is discovered by Jerry Cruncher, who is a body-snatcher, known by the euphemistic name of “Resurrection-Man.” Young Jerry, his son, quizzes Cruncher on the trade and the goods in which he deals, finally expressing a desire to join the family business:
“His goods,” said Mr. Cruncher, after turning it over in his mind, “is a branch of Scientific goods.”
“Persons' bodies, ain't it, father?” asked the lively boy.
“I believe it is something of that sort,” said Mr. Cruncher.
“Oh, father, I should so like to be a Resurrection-Man when I'm quite growed up!”
The biblical text of John 11.25–26 is repeated several times, and it is the last thing Sydney Carton thinks of before the series of prophesies with which he goes to his death:
I am the Resurrection and the Life, saith the Lord: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.
Carton, like Dr. Manette, has endured a form of living death. His bitterness and cynicism have increased over the years, until he had nothing left for which to live. The sacrifice he makes at the end of the book gives him peace and purpose, a form of resurrection even before the afterlife promised by the Christian faith. Carton even foresees the resurrection of Paris itself, “a beautiful city and a brilliant people” rising out of the abyss, as the evils of the Terror are expiated over time.
Self-Sacrifice and Selfishness
Sydney Carton’s heroic sacrifice is the single central action of the book, giving meaning to a life he has come to loathe and allowing him to die with such dignity and purpose that he finally achieves the status of prophet and martyr, foreseeing the fates of the other characters as he goes peacefully to his death. Although Carton’s self-sacrifice is the most striking in the novel, the chief moral difference between the good and evil characters is the willingness of the former to sacrifice their own interests for others or for a greater good, contrasted with the extreme selfishness of the latter. Lucie Manette spends her life caring for others, principally her father, though she also shows deep concern for Carton. Charles Darnay risks his life to help Gabelle. Miss Pross is willing to do anything to help those she...
(The entire section is 1,006 words.)