(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

For fear of losing her job as a schoolteacher in provincial Chile, Lucila Godoy Alcayaga used the pseudonym Gabriela Mistral. Her writings include poetry, stories, criticism—political and literary—and numerous prose pieces, many of them political enough to have attracted unwelcome fame. Never having children of her own, she made an international reputation early in her career with elegant poems about children and motherhood. As a teacher, she devoted a significant portion of her life to young students, who included, informally, a teenager named Ricardo Reyes, who would receive, as she did, a Nobel Prize in Literature. His pen name was Pablo Neruda.

Tala was the third of four collections that Mistral published in her lifetime. Tala means “felling,” as in the felling of trees; the title has also been translated as Devastation. The modest volume’s proceeds went to the benefit of orphans displaced by the Spanish Civil War. This gesture was typical of Mistral, considering how strongly her poetry speaks to the nurturing of children. At the same time, her work was by turns emotional, visionary, and possessed by a sensuality that in part may account for her desire to separate her life as a poet from her life as a teacher.

By the time Tala was published, Mistral had seen much more of the world as a diplomat and an education consultant than she had when her first book appeared in 1922. Mistral’s deep interests in children and the mystic qualities of nature remain a key element of her third collection, but the intensity of anguish that distinguished much of her previous work gives way, in Tala, to a more controlled sense of observation. This is not to suggest any lack of maturity in her early work, only that with Tala, the reader encounters an older, widely traveled poet who has come to more comfortable terms with the tragic events of life. There is an undeniable emotional drive to these poems, but the reader will find a noticeably heightened sense of the poet’s journalistic eye. The collection conveys a sense of the somewhat ethereal atmosphere of life on the South American landscape. In “Riches,” Mistral writes, “I have an abiding bliss/ and a lost fortune,/ one like a rose,/ the other like a thorn.”

There is a touch of autobiography here, pointing to the devastating loss she suffered as a young woman in love with a man who committed suicide. Mistral’s poems often deal with her grief over Romelio Ureta’s death. Here, the poet’s grief is merely implied, offered more as the memory of an emotion than the emotion itself. The poet has attained the necessary distance from the tragedy to apply her art to it in new ways. Earlier poems on the subject deal with recent wounds, the poet now looks at old scars. All likelihood seems to have been that Ureta and Mistral would have married and had the family the poet longed for all of her life. Mistral never did marry, creating for herself a surrogate family in every community she joined as a teacher or diplomat.

“Riches” is a brief, imagistic lyric that considers the inadvertent exchange, as it were, of the conventional family she had anticipated for the unconventional one she found. There is surely pain in this poem, but it is pain in retrospect: “I am rich with purple and with melancholy./ Oh, how beloved is the rose,/ and what a lover, the thorn!” The direct statement of her grief in Mistral’s earlier work is here given over to sensory image.

“Grace” is an example of the type of work for which Mistral earned “visionary” as one of the many honorable adjectives commonly ascribed to her work. Once again, the poem’s primary vehicle of expression is the image. The speaker’s acute awareness of the senses seeks the reader’s appeal on an affective level rather than an intellectual one. Sensory experience is made palpable; the poet shares a deceptively simple epiphany, without explanation or analysis. The reader is led to feel the poet’s experience through images that appear almost surreal: “A dappled bird,/ a bird like jasper/ went rainbow/ wild/ through the carriage/ of the air./ This same...

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Tala Bibliography

(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

Agosín, Marjorie, ed. Gabriela Mistral: The Audacious Traveler. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003. Collection of essays focusing on various aspects of Mistral’s life and work, paying special attention to her political activism. Some of the essays discuss the death of the beloved in her poetry, the English translations of her writings, her extensive travels, and her pan-Americanism.

Bejar, Alfredo, ed. Globe Hispanic Biographies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Globe, 1989. A collection of essay-length biographies, including one of Mistral. Not in depth, but a source for general biographical information on the poet in English, which is rare.

Fiol-Matta, Licia. A Queer Mother for the Nation: The State and Gabriela Mistral. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Although she never had a child, Mistral was a symbol of womanhood to many Latin Americans, who thought of her as the national schoolteacher-mother. Fiol-Matta examines how Mistral came to occupy this position, analyzing the issues of race, gender, and sexual politics in Mistral’s life, image, and poetry.

Mistral, Gabriela. Gabriela Mistral: A Reader. Translated by Maria Giachetti, edited by Marjorie Agosîn. Fredonia, N.Y.: White Pine Press, 1993. Includes a wide selection of poems from Tala in English translation. Twenty-eight prose pieces provide a good view of Mistral’s range.

Neruda, Pablo. Memoirs. Translated by Hardie St. Martin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977. Chilean poet Neruda discusses his association with Mistral as his earliest mentor. Although brief, this is perhaps one of the best places to find a portrait of Mistral during the early years of her career as a teacher.

Peña, Karen. Poetry and the Realm of the Public Intellectual: The Alternative Destinies of Gabriela Mistral, Cecília Meireles, and Rosario Castellanos. Leeds, England: Legenda, 2007. Examines the works of three Latin American women writers, describing how they used their poetry to challenge patriarchal society by writing about gender, sexuality, and marginalized people. The chapters on Mistral also discuss her lesbian sexuality.

Rosenbaum, Sidonia Carmen. Modern Women Poets of Spanish America. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978. Offers historical perspectives and academic criticism of four poets, including Mistral. One of the more detailed examinations of Mistral among the few studies available in English.