What Do I Read Next?
Axel’s Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930 (1931), by Edmund Wilson, provides an important critical discussion of the symbolist movement and its influence on such twentieth-century writers as William Butler Yeats, Paul Valéry, T. S. Eliot, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein.
Six French Poets of the Nineteenth Century: Lamartine, Hugo, Baudelaire, Verlaine, Rimbaud, Mallarmé (2000), edited by E. H. Blackmore and A. M. Blackmore, provides a bilingual edition of French symbolist poetry with an English translation on facing pages.
French Symbolist Poetry: An Anthology (1980), edited by John Porter Houston and Mona Tobin Houston, provides English translations of major works of French symbolist poetry.
The Crisis of French Symbolism (1990), by Laurence M. Porter, offers criticism and interpretation of the works of the major symbolist poets Mallarmé, Verlaine, Baudelaire, and Rimbaud.
Four French Symbolists: A Sourcebook on Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, and Maurice Denis (1996), by Russell T. Clement, offers a helpful guide to further sources on the major French symbolist painters.
Symbolist Theater: The Formation of an Avant- Garde (1993), by Frantisek Deak, provides discussion of the development of symbolist theatre in France.
Models of the Universe: An Anthology of the Prose Poem (1995), edited by Stuart Friebert and David Young, provides an introduction to prose poetry of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries from a variety of writers.
Debussy in Performance (1999), edited by James R. Briscoe, includes essays on Debussy and Symbolism as well as discussion of his musical adaptations of Mallarmé’s The Afternoon of a Faun and Maeterlinck’s Pelleas and Melisande.
Debussy and His World (2001), edited by Jane F. Fulcher, includes an essay on Debussy’s participation in the Tuesday salons held by Mallarmé.
Paris and the Nineteenth Century (1992), by Christopher Prendergast, provides historical analysis of nineteenth-century culture and politics in Paris, France.
Realism, Naturalism, and Symbolism: Modes of Thought and Expression in Europe, 1848–1914 (1968), edited by Roland N. Stromberg, offers discussion of major artistic and literary movements in Europe during the period in which the symbolist movement developed.