Historical Context

The growth of nationalism was one of the most important developments in nineteenth- and twentieth- century Western...

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Literary Style

Simile and Analogy
Toynbee frequently makes use of similes and analogies in which two apparently dissimilar things are compared....

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Bibliography and Further Reading

Gargen, Edward T., ed., The Intent of Toynbee’s History, Loyola University Press, 1961, pp. 1–46.


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(Critical Survey of Literature for Students)

Brewin, Christopher. “Arnold Toynbee, Chatham House, and Research in a Global Context.” In Thinkers of The Twenty Years’ Crisis: Inter-War Idealism Reassessed, edited by David Long and Peter Wilson. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. The years between the two world wars have been called the “idealistic” phase of international-relations theory. This collection of essays examines works written during that period, including Toynbee’s writings, to analyze their utopian elements and to determine if “idealistic” is an accurate description.

Herman, Arthur. “Welcoming Defeat: Arnold Toynbee.” In The Idea of Decline in Western History. New York: Free...

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Compare and Contrast

1950s: The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union dominates the political landscape of the world.


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Topics for Further Study

Why has the West assumed such a dominant role in the world today? Is the West a force for good? If it is, why do many other countries,...

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What Do I Read Next?

Journalist Robert D. Kaplan, in The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (2000), argues that the post-Cold War...

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