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The Andean civilization in Peru emerged on the Andean coast and plateau around the beginning of the Christian era. The challenge it had to overcome was a bleak climate on an almost soil-less plateau. It is not known when its Time of Troubles began, but it lasted until 1430 A.D. and was followed by the universal state of the Inca Empire. A time of peace followed until 1533, when the empire was destroyed by the arrival of the Spanish.

The Arabic civilization developed out of the Syriac civilization and flourished mainly in Syria and Egypt. It was similar to the Iranic civilization; the main difference was that in the Iranic civilization, the predominant faith was Islamic Shi’ism, whereas in the Arabic civilization, Sunnism predominated.

Arrested Civilizations
Arrested civilizations are those that have stayed alive but have failed to grow. They arose in response to a physical or human challenge of unusual severity, on the borderline between the degree that gives stimulus to greater development and that which brings about defeat. They attempted and achieved a tour de force but could not grow any further. Examples include, in response to physical challenges, the Polynesians, Eskimos, and Nomads; and in response to human challenges, the Spartans in the Hellenic world and the Osmanlis in the Orthodox Christian world.

Babylonic civilization emerged in Iraq before 1500 B.C. out of the disintegrating Sumeric civilization with which it continued to have much in common. It endured a Time of Troubles during the seventh century B.C. in which it was at war with the Assyrians. Following this, a Neo-Babylonic Empire (a universal state) was established from 610 to 539 B.C. under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar. After conquest by Cyrus the Persian, the Babylonic universal state was swallowed up by the universal state of the Achaemenian Empire of Cyrus; Babylonian civilization was absorbed into the Syriac civilization.

The Egyptaic civilization emerged in the Nile River Valley before 4000 B.C. The challenge it faced was environmental: to clean, drain, and cultivate what was formerly a jungle-swamp uninhabited by man. It reached a peak of growth and creativity in the fourth dynasty with major achievements in engineering (including the pyramids), political administration, art, and religion. Decline set in with the Time of Troubles from circa 2424 to 2070/60 B.C., and this resulted in a universal state, which lasted from c. 2000 to 1788 B.C. The universal state was overthrown by invasion of the Hykos but was later reestablished as the New Empire. Each universal state produced a ‘‘universal peace,’’ the second of which lasted until 1175 B.C. The Egyptaic civilization became extinct in the fifth century A.D. It had no forebears and no successors.

Far Eastern Christian
The Far Eastern Christian civilization arose in Central Asia and perished in 737–741 A.D when it was annexed to the Arab Empire. It had been separate from the rest of the Syriac world for nearly nine hundred years.

Far Eastern—Japanese Offshoot
The Japanese offshoot of the main body of Far Eastern civilization arose in the Japanese Archipelago after 500 A.D. It endured a Time of Troubles from 1185 to 1597 in which there was political disunity and civil war. This period was followed by a universal state until 1863. Japanese civilization produced the religion of Zen Buddhism. It is now in a state of disintegration because of the impact of Western civilization.

Far Eastern—Main Body
The Far Eastern civilization emerged in China before 500 A.D. out of the disintegrating Sinic civilization. It began to break down in the late ninth century A.D. Its Time of Troubles lasted from...

(This entire section contains 2110 words.)

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about 878 to 1280, followed by successive universal states founded by barbarians. The first was the Mongol Empire (1280–1351); another was the Manchu Empire (1644–1853). The Far Eastern remains a living civilization.

Far Western Christian
The Far Western Christian civilization arose mainly in Ireland after c. 375 A.D. The Celts molded Christianity to fit their own social heritage, and their originality can be seen in their church organization, literature, and art. This civilization was destroyed by a combination of the Vikings from the ninth to eleventh centuries, the ecclesiastical authority of Rome, and the political authority of England in the twelfth century.

The Hellenic civilization was loosely affiliated with the Minoan; its offspring were the Western and Orthodox Christian civilizations. It first emerged in the coasts and islands of the Aegean before 1100 B.C.; the challenge it faced was to overcome barren land, the sea, and the disintegrating Minoan society. The Hellenic civilization’s Time of Troubles began in 431 B.C. with the outbreak of the Peloponnesian war, which ended in victory for Sparta in 404 B.C. The Time of Troubles continued until 32 B.C. when a universal state, the Roman Empire, was established. A time of peace endured to 378 A.D. The Hellenic civilization collapsed with the downfall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D. It produced great achievements in politics, art, literature, architecture, science, and philosophy. Notable individuals included Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Socrates, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Zeno.

The Hindu civilization arose in North India before 800 A.D. out of the disintegrating Indic civilization. Its Time of Troubles was 1175–1572 A.D., followed by a universal state, the Mughal Empire, 1572–1707. When this collapsed it was replaced within a century by the British Raj, from 1818 to 1947. The Hindu civilization developed the religions of Sikhism and Hinduism. The latter is associated with the name of Sankara, who lived about 800 A.D. The Hindu civilization remains a living one.

The Hittite civilization emerged from Cappadocia, just beyond the borders of the Sumeric civilization, before 1500 B.C. Its main challenge was to deal with the disintegrating Sumeric civilization. The Hittites were constantly at war with Egypt from 1352 to 1278 B.C. Hittite civilization was overwhelmed by a wave of migration from 1200 to 1190 B.C.

The Indic civilization emerged circa 1500 B.C. in the Indus and Ganges river valleys from where it spread to cover the entire Indian subcontinent. The environmental challenge to which it had to respond was the luxuriant tropical forests in the Ganges valley. Indic civilization went through a Time of Troubles up to 322 B.C. after which a universal state, the Mauryan Empire, came into being, 322–185 B.C. Another universal state, the Guptan Empire, arose c. 375–475 A.D.; it was followed by three hundred years of invasion by Huns and Gurjaras. Indic civilization produced the religion of the Vedas, the Buddha (567–487 B.C.), and Jainism.

The Iranic civilization was affiliated with the Syriac. It arose in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and North Africa before 1300 A.D. out of the disintegrating Syriac civilization. The chrysalis that enabled it to emerge was the Islamic Church. Its ‘‘twin’’ civilization was the Arabic with which it fused in 1516 to form the Islamic civilization. In modern times, the Pan- Islamic movement has suggested the coming of a universal state, but this state has not so far occurred.

The Mayan civilization emerged in the Central American tropical forests before c. 500 B.C. Its challenge was to overcome the luxuriance of the forest. A Time of Troubles occurred from an unknown date until 300 A.D. after which the First Empire of the Mayas was formed. Although not technologically advanced, the Mayas achieved a high level of civilization, excelling in astronomy. The Mayan civilization came to a rapid and mysterious end in the seventh century A.D. Its ruined cities still remain in the midst of tropical forests.

The Mexic civilization arose from the disintegration of the Mayan civilization and it fused with the Yucatec to form a Central American civilization. A Time of Troubles occurred up to 1521 A.D.; the Aztecs were on the verge of establishing a universal state when the Spanish arrived. With the coming of Western civilization, the Mexic civilization lost its distinctive identity.

The Minoan civilization emerged in the Aegean islands before 3000 B.C. Its main challenge was the sea. It underwent a Time of Troubles from an unknown date to 1750 B.C. before being unified in a universal state known as the Thalassocracy of Minos. It enjoyed 350 years of peace. The Heroic Age that followed the invasion by barbarians and the disintegration of the Minoan universal state can be glimpsed in the epic poetry of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.

Orthodox Christian—Main Body
The Orthodox Christian civilization is, with Western civilization, a twin offshoot of Hellenic civilization. It emerged as a result of a schism in the Catholic Church into two bodies, the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church. This split began with the Iconoclastic controversy in the eighth century and became final in 1054. Orthodox Christian civilization went through a Time of Troubles between 977 and 1372; this period ended with the establishment of a universal state, the Ottoman Empire, which lasted from 1372 to 1768. Orthodox Christianity is found mainly in southern and eastern Europe.

Orthodox Christian—Russian Offshoot
The Russian offshoot of the Orthodox Christian civilization emerged in Russia in the tenth century. Its Time of Troubles began in the twelfth century with the break-up of the Russian Principality of Kiev into warring states; it was aggravated by the invasion of the Mongols in 1238. The Time of Troubles did not end until 1478, when a universal state was established through the union of Muscovy and Novgorod, a state that lasted until 1881. Like all living civilizations, the Russian branch of the Orthodox civilization has been heavily influenced, to the point of breakdown, by Western civilization.

The Scandinavian civilization emerged after the break-up of the Roman Empire. The Scandinavians had been isolated from Roman Christendom, and their pagan civilization grew as a result of Viking conquests from the eighth to the eleventh century. The civilization was doomed, however, after the Icelanders were converted to Christianity in the year 1000.

The Sinic civilization developed in the lower valley of the Yellow River in northern China around 1500 B.C. It had to overcome the challenge of marshes, floods, and extremes of temperature. Its Time of Troubles was from 634 to 221 B.C., after which a universal state, the Ts’in Empire (and later the Han Empire) was formed. The Sinic civilization produced the philosopher Confucius and the great works of Taoism and is also associated with Mahayana Buddhism, which reached it from the Indic civilization.

The Sumeric civilization began in the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley c. 4300–3100. B.C., where it had to overcome the difficult jungle-swamp environment. It faced a Time of Troubles from c. 2677–2298 B.C., in which Sumerian city-states were at war. After this the Empire of Sumer and Akkad established unity and peace in a universal state that lasted until 2230 B.C. It was restored by Hammurabi c. 1947 B.C. and broke up after his death.

The Syriac civilization emerged in Syria before 1100 B.C. out of the disintegrating Minoan civilization. From c. 937 to 525 B.C. it went through a Time of Troubles before becoming a universal state in the form of the Achaemenian Empire, c. 525–332 B.C. In the last century B.C., it absorbed the Babylonic civilization. A second universal state occurred during the Arab Caliphate, 640–969 A.D. Three great achievements of Syriac society were the invention of the alphabet, the discovery of the Atlantic Ocean, and a monotheistic conception of God that is common to Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam. Through its universal church, Islam, Syriac civilization contributed to the rise of the Iranic and Arabic civilizations.

Western civilization arose in Western Europe before 700 A.D. Affiliated with the Hellenic civilization, it arose out of the chaos that followed the break-up of the Roman Empire. In the eighth century, it covered only Britain and the dominions of Charlemagne in Western Europe, but it has shown a tendency to expand its boundaries. This expansion began in earnest in the last quarter of the fifteenth century. Since then, Western civilization has spread across the globe, encroaching on or absorbing all other living civilizations. This is particularly apparent in the economic and political spheres; this ascendency has not yet obliterated the distinctive cultures of the other civilizations.Western Civilization can be divided into four periods or chapters: the Dark Ages (675–1075); Middle Ages (1075–1475); Modern (1475–1875); and from 1875 on, which Toynbee tentatively describes as Postmodern.

The Yucatec civilization was the offspring of the Mayan civilization. It arose after 629 A.D. on a desolate limestone shelf of the Yucatan peninsula and had to overcome the dry, treeless terrain. It also had the challenge of forming an identity distinct from the disintegrating Mayan civilization.Although its people were skilled in metallurgy, the Yucatec civilization never achieved the heights that the Mayan had; it was absorbed by the Mexic civilization in the twelfth century.




Critical Essays