(Masterpieces of American Literature)

Though Stranger in a Strange Land is the publisher’s title for this novel (Heinlein called it The Heretic or The Man from Mars), it expresses some of the subtleties of the title character. The “Stranger” is Valentine Michael Smith, and the “Strange Land” is human culture, for though he is human, Smith was raised by Martians, the same inscrutable race described in Red Planet and Podkayne of Mars (1963).

Probably Heinlein’s most critically acclaimed book, it is usually most praised for messages that Heinlein did not intend. Depicting a society in the near future reveling in lax sexual mores and yearning for a new religion, Stranger in a Strange Land was misunderstood as celebrating those aspects of contemporary culture. Hence, the novel became a cult classic on college campuses through the 1960’s and 1970’s, read both in and out of class. Though easily refuted, the rumor that Stranger in a Strange Land influenced the mass-murderer Charles Manson still persists in science-fiction circles: It is even reported as “fact” in some reference works.

The appeal of the book is in the character of Smith himself: more Martian than man, he has psychic and physical powers beyond those of most humans, and he trains his friends to develop those powers. The artificial “family” that Smith attracts appealed to the communal nature of the 1960’s counterculture (and led to the spurious connection with Manson). The head of the family is not Smith, who is a young man throughout the long novel, but one of Heinlein’s most fascinating creations, Jubal Harshaw.

Harshaw is one of Heinlein’s perennial mentor characters, an attorney, medical doctor, scientist, and popular author, who has amassed enough of a fortune to isolate himself from the rest of the world. When Smith is brought to Earth from Mars, where he was born when his parents made the first expedition there, the government keeps him in seclusion. When a young nurse “rescues” Smith (or “Mike,” as his friends begin calling him), Harshaw offers them both protection from overzealous government thugs.

What makes Mike an effective point-of-view character is the common science-fiction technique of defamiliarization. By presenting common aspects of his readers’ society as unfamiliar (as they would be to a human raised on Mars), Heinlein is able to bring readers to question the basic presuppositions of their culture. Tolerance of new ways of thinking, necessary for any technological or...

(The entire section is 1044 words.)


(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Robert A. Heinlein was one of the most popular science-fiction writers of the twentieth century. His best-known work, Stranger in a Strange Land, is a novel that uses the traditional satirical device of observing contemporary society through the eyes of an innocent outsider.

Valentine Michael “Mike” Smith, as an infant, was the sole survivor of an expedition to Mars. Raised by native Martians for twenty-five years, he is found by the next expedition and brought to an Earth about which he knows nothing. As the only Earthling left on Mars, he is, by the Earth laws of the time, the owner of the planet, so powerful business and political interests want to control him.

Nurse Jill Boardman smuggles him out of the hospital where he is held. She takes him to the secluded retreat of Jubal Harshaw—doctor, lawyer, writer, and cynic—who becomes Mike’s protector and mentor. Among other things, Jubal saves Mike from the burden of “owning” Mars by pointing out that since Mars is already inhabited by sentient beings, it cannot be owned by Earthlings (an anticolonial approach rare at that time).

The Martians had taught Mike their language, which represents reality far better than any Earth language. Understanding Martian thus enables one to function much better, even enabling abilities (such as telepathy) considered supernatural on Earth.

Mike discovers sex with several women, and then goes out will Jill to...

(The entire section is 437 words.)