Bibliography

Bloom, Edward, and Lillian Bloom. Educating the Audience: Addison, Steele, and Eighteenth-Century Culture. Los Angeles: William Clark Andrews Memorial Library, University of California, 1984. A study of The Spectator providing a detailed perspective on the readers of the periodical and how the authors appealed to them.

Bond, Richmond P., ed. Studies in the Early English Periodical. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1957. This indispensable history of the eighteenth century periodical provides the terminology currently in use to describe literary essays and magazines.

Dammer, Richard H. Richard Steele. Boston: Twayne, 1982. This biography in the Twayne’s English Authors series argues that Steele used themes from an earlier moral tract, The Christian Hero (1701), as a unifying feature in his essays for The Spectator.

Ketcham, Michael D. Transparent Designs: Reading, Performance, and Form in “The Spectator” Papers. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1985. A significant and careful study of Addison’s and Steele’s literary styles.

Mackie, Erin Skye. Market à la Mode: Fashion, Commodity, and Gender in the “Tatler” and the “Spectator.” Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Mackie examines both of the periodicals edited by Addison and Steele, focusing on how they covered fashion in their role as arbiters of eighteenth century English taste. Places the periodicals within the commercial context of publishing and describes how their fashion reportage expressed contemporary ideas about gender identity and cultural standards.

Newman, Donald J., ed. “The Spectator”: Emerging Discourses. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2005. Examines how The Spectator served as a manual to help the emerging middle class organize its life. The essays discuss the periodical’s ideas about children, literature, education, femininity, death, and other topics.

Winton, Calhoun. Captain Steele: The Early Career of Richard Steele. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1964. The first of Winton’s two-book biography of Steele, covering his early career between 1690 and 1714. Half of this volume is on Steele’s periodical journalism and The Spectator.