What is the speaker's attitude toward nature in "Song of Myself" by Walt Whitman?

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The speaker's attitude in Whitman's famous poem toward nature is that of reverence and adoration. The entirety of the poem is spent cherishing the wonder that nature brings, placing the speaker in indulgent pastoral settings while he revels in its beauty.

This poem is the paradigm for nature poetry, encapsulating the spirit of communion with nature. It is clear in the speaker's reverence that interacting with nature is practically a religious experience. He evokes vivid imagery, encapsulating each sense with his lines—speaking of "the sniff of green leaves and dry leaves" and images of the "shore and dark-color'd sea-rocks" captures the depth of color and scent, conjuring up vivid depictions.

While this poem, as is evident in the title, is focused on celebrating the speaker themselves, it is also reverent in its attitude toward nature, essentially stating that the speaker's celebration of themselves is comparable to a celebration of nature and creation (as the "self" and "nature" are presented as one and the same, the piece and the whole).

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There may be no poem that so effectively embodies the concept of "nature poetry" than this one. This well-loved poem was controversial for some time after it was first published, because it contains imagery that is frankly sexual, and these sexual images are closely intertwined with the speaker's attitudes about nature. For example: 

Urge and urge and urge,
Always the procreant urge of the world.
Out of the dimness opposite equals advance, always
     substance and increase, always sex

Nature's imagery is connected via Whitman's words to the cycle of living and dying (harvest, decay, birth, fertility, etc.), but also to the range of emotional experiences (joy, wonder, love, sadness, etc.) that nature can inspire in human beings. This poetic work represents an attempt to engage deeply and completely with nature and to celebrate the human connection to the entire world of nature, via both work and recreation. Whitman creates powerful passages using descriptions of the natural world (plants, animals, landscapes, the elements, the seasons, etc.) that sustain these themes throughout.

The speaker/poet places himself in many different situations in nature (walking, hunting, lying in repose, etc.) and these moments form the opportunity for observation and insightful thought; in this way the poet seems to be suggesting that readers engage in such activity as well, in order to better understand the significance of nature in their own lives. He also praises the people who work closely with nature:

I am enamour'd of growing out-doors,
Of men that live among cattle or taste of the ocean or woods,
Of the builders and steerers of ships and the wielders of axes
     and mauls, and the drivers of horses,
I can eat and sleep with them week in and week out.

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