Further Reading

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Benson, Hugh. Essays on the Philosophy of Socrates. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 361p.

Collection of essays analyzing various aspects of Socrates's philosophy and other related issues, including Socratic irony, the charges against Socrates, the theory of the unity of virtue, and the involuntary nature of wrongdoing.

Brickhouse, Thomas C. and Nicholas D. Smith. Socrates on Trial. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989, 337p.

Offers an account of Socrates's trial based on Plato's Apology, including discussion of the accusations against Socrates, the defense put for-ward by Socrates, and his final speeches. Also includes extensive bibliography.

Burnet, John. "The Life of Sokrates," "The Philosophy of Sokrates," and "The Trial and Death of Sokrates." In Greek Philosophy: Thales to Plato, pp. 102-122, 123-145, and 146-156. London: Macmillan & Co., 1964.

Three chapters on Socrates providing a detailed account of what is known from various sources of his life, beliefs and teachings, condemnation, trial, and execution.

Capaldi, Nicholas; Eugene Kelley; and Luis E. Navia. "A Certain Man Named Socrates." In An Invitation to Philosophy, pp. 35-56. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1981.

Reviews the intellectual atmosphere of Greece at the time of the emergence of Socrates, and discusses his life and thought.

Chroust, Anton-Hermann. "The Political Aspects of the Socratic Problem." In Socrates Man and Myth: The Two Socratic Apologies of Xenophon, pp. 164-197. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.

Questions the "paucity of reports on the political activities of Socrates," noting that while Socrates did advise most of his followers to avoid entering into politics, he himself did express political views, such as his disdain for Athenian democracy.

Ferguson, John. Socrates: A Source Book, compiled and in part translated by John Ferguson. London: Macmillan, 1970, 335p.

Provides English translations of the "main source material about Socrates." Includes translations of works by Plato, Xenophon, Aristophanes, and Aristotle, as well as the writings of Diogenes Laertius, several Athenian orators, and a number of later writers, including Christian commentators.

Gooch, Paul W. "Socrates: Devious or Divine?" Greece & Rome XXXII, No. I (April 1985): 32-41.

Examines the "ways in which Plato's Socrates has been represented and assessed," arguing that the Platonic Socrates has been characterized both as an ideal man, a "model for life and thought," and as a "devious devil whose major aim is to destroy other people's beliefs and arguments."

Hackforth, R. "Great Thinkers: Socrates." Philosophy: The Journal of the British Institute of Philosophy, VIII, No. 31 (July, 1933): 259-72.

Discusses the debate regarding the accuracy of Plato's and Xenophon's portrayals of Socrates.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. "Greek Philosophy: First Period, Second Division." In Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Volume One, translated by E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, pp. 350-487. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1892.

Section B (pp. 384-447) of this chapter is devoted to Socrates, the Socratic method, his principle of "the good," and his trial and death.

Jaspers, Karl. "Socrates." In The Great Philosophers, edited by Hannah Arendt, translated by Ralph Manheim, pp. 15-31. New York: Jarcourt, Brace & World, 1962.

A brief overview of Socrates's life, intellectual development, the form and substance of his philosophy, his trial, the "Platonic transfiguration" of Socrates, and an assessment of Socrates's influence and significance.

Montgomery, John D., ed. The State versus Socrates: A Case Study in Civic Freedom. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1954, 247p.

A collection of essays which discusses the background of the case against Socrates; arguments which highlight the State's opposition to Socrates; essays portraying Socrates as an innocent, pious victim, and as an advocate of political criticism; and four essays which assess Socrates, his beliefs, and...

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his significance from a historical standpoint.

Montuori, Mario. "Socrates: Philosophy and Politics." In Socrates: Physiology of a Myth, pp. 177-200. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1981.

Argues that the concept of Socrates as a non-political figure is a false one, and that while the philosopher may not have been a politician, he was indeed a teacher of politics.

——. The Socratic Problem: The History—The Solutions. Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 1992, 475p.

A collection of extracts from fifty-four authors from the eighteenth century to the present focussing on the issue of the "Socratic problem," that is, the lack of writings by Socrates, and the question of the validity and accuracy of Socratic sources.

O'Brien, Michael J. "Socrates and the Fifth Century." In The Socratic Paradoxes and the Greek Mind, pp. 56-82. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Places the teachings of Socrates within the context of fifth-century Greek thought.

Russell, Bertrand. "Socrates." In A History of Western Philosophy, pp. 82-93. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1945.

Reviews the problem of Socrates by discussing the two authors, Xenophon and Plato, who wrote about him. Discusses Plato's Apology as a generally historical account of Socrates's speech made in his own defense at the trial.

Sauvage, Micheline. "Socrates through the Ages." In Socrates and the Conscience of Man, pp. 137-67. London: Longman, Green & Co., 1960.

Examines some of the critical issues regarding Socrates and his legacy, including the question of the authenticity and reliability of Socratic sources and the influence of Socratic philisophy on such spiritual movements as Christianity.

Stone. I. F. "The Prejudices of Socrates." In The Trial of Socrates, pp. 90-129. New York: Little, Brown and Co., 1988.

Explores Socrates's denigration of the middle class (of which he was a member), of other philosophers, and of democracy in general.

Vlastos, Gregory. Socratic Studies, edited by Myles Burnyeat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, 152p.

Discusses several aspects of Socrates's philosophy including the Socratic method, his disavowal of knowledge, and the views of Socrates on Athenian democracy.