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What are the advantages and disadvantages for residents if factories are built next to residential areas?

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Erecting factories next to a residential community will surely have an impact on the quality of living in the area.

First, let's take a look at the advantages. The presence of factories will definitely provide jobs that will address any unemployment concerns a community may have. It will then increase the purchasing power of the residents, which will eventually benefit the local economy. Crimes caused by poverty may lessen as a result.

Now, let us consider the disadvantages. Depending on the factory, a community may see an increase in health concerns as occupational hazards become prominent among locals employed in these factories. Environmental concerns will begin to surface as chemicals and other such by-products stream into bodies of water, affect the quality of air, and/or cause significant damage to soil. The very construction of said factories could have also entailed the cutting down of trees in the area. Given these, the health of residents—not only of workers—will take a beating along with the environment. Another form of pollution which may threaten the locality is noise due to the constant operation of heavy machinery and the volume of workers congregated in the surrounding area.

In the end, a community must weigh the pros and cons before considering building factories next to residential areas. Economically, they add value to a region. However, their environmental impact undoubtedly can create long-term problems that will affect a community's life and longevity.

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The disadvantages of such arrangements greatly outweigh the advantages, which is why cities in rich countries generally have zoning laws to prevent such things from happening.

There are two major benefits of building factories near to residential areas.  First, the factories will typically create many job opportunities for the residents of the areas.  Second, the fact that the people live near to the factory makes things easy on infrastructure.  The city in which the factory is built will not have to worry about building extra roads or rapid transit lines to carry workers to the factory.  

However, there are many disadvantages that are felt by those who live in the residential areas.  Perhaps the greatest of these has to do with the annoyances brought by the factory.  There might be loud noises all day and night.  There could be bad smells.  There is likely to be a great deal of traffic as trucks or trains bring raw materials to the factory and carry away the finished products.  All of these sorts of annoyances can seriously reduce the quality of life enjoyed by the people of the residential area.

People in rich countries, at least, tend to feel that the negatives outweigh the positives.  Therefore, they tend to enact laws preventing this sort of arrangement.

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