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Question about using the stages of Piaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg?

Fourteen-year-old Jake is about to enter high school. Using the stages of Piaget, Erikson, and Kohlberg, explains the types of developmental changes he will probably experience in the next several years.

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From the perspective of Piaget, Jake is entering the Formal Operational stage of development. This means he has progressed from an egocentric perspective, through the concrete operational stage in which he would have learned how to manipulate objects in his environment and understand the process of conservation (even though an object may change shape and form, it maintains some if its original characteristics). Now, Jake is entering a new stage in which he will progress from understanding his role in relation to objects around him and the power he might influence over them to understanding his role in relation to his peers. He will begin to learn that his peers hold differing opinions and values, and he will explore his own values in relation to his peers. He may also begin to develop the ability to reflect on his own thoughts (referred to as "metacognition") and to wonder about his thoughts in relation to the thoughts of others. He may begin to wonder about morality.

From the perspective of Erikson, Jake is entering the Identity vs. Role Confusion stage. In this stage, Jake is exploring his role in his family of origin and looking beyond that to understand his role in society as a whole. Who will he be? How will he act? Who will his friends be, and how will they behave in relation to him? Who will he love? If he is able to navigate this phase successfully, he will achieve fidelity, which is a sense of himself that holds true, and he will be able to accept that others have opinions that differ from his.

From the perspective of Kohlberg, Jake will be navigating moral dilemmas as he enters the stage of Morality of Autonomous Moral Principles. This means he will be weighing the complex issues of what is right or moral versus what is legal or mandated by law. He will also be considering the effects of decisions on individuals and society as a whole. This stage of development will likely continue for the rest of Jake's life.

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Fourteen-year-old Jake would be in Piaget's Formal Operational Stage. This is considered the fourth and final stage. During this time, Jake will become more proficient in understanding abstract symbols in algebra. He will also become more of a creative thinker and a problem-solver by using deductive reasoning skills. Jake will be able to consider multiple outcomes to problem situations and even think about his own thinking!

According to Erickson's stages of psychosocial development, Jake would be in the fifth stage, which is identity versus role confusion. During this important phase, Jake will become more independent and begin to consider his future. As his outcome, Jake will hope to develop a solid sense of his own identity and his purpose in society, or he may experience what Erickson refers to as role confusion. If Jake is successful in his journey through adolescence, he will experience the virtue of fidelity.

In Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development, Jake would be in the second of three levels, in stage four. He'll begin to understand the necessity and importance of rules in society and will look to his society for guidance and confirmation.

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Piaget - ability to think in abstract ways - not be so concrete or literal in understanding the world around him, ability to use hypothetical and deductive reasoning.

Erikson - Identity crisis - trying to identify his own values, questioning and exploring personal values and what he wants out of life

Kohlberg - morality and conformity to society moves from avoiding punishment to a morality and conformity to authority based on a greater societal good

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