Slaves of New York

(Literary Masterpieces, Volume 9)

A character in “Spells,” one of these stories, is offered the following presents on her birthday: “a Godzilla lighter (flames shoot out of Godzilla’s mouth); a record of Maria Callas singing Norma; a silk survival map of the Arctic Circle; a glue gun; a cassette tape of Teenage Jesus and the Jerks; a large black plastic object with a pink pyramid-shaped cover (possibly made by the Memphis Design Collective) which might be a breadbox or an ice bucket; a ten-pound bag of Eukanuba health food for dogs; a book about wrestling; and a Statue of Liberty hat—a spiky helmet of flexible foam.” The narrator, a jewelry designer named Eleanor, comments,I know that this assortment of gifts means something specific and symbolic about people my age who live in New York and are involved in the arts. A list of gifts received by a flapper in the Jazz Age could tell you things about the period, and this stuff has significance as well. But what the gifts actually represent, I have no idea.

Eleanor is selling herself a bit short, as good stand-up comics will. Constructed with care, this list gives a rather accurate introduction to postmodern art’s willful confusion of certain hierarchical distinctions: between high and mass culture (Callas and Godzilla), between artwork and commodity (who can say whether any of these gifts was cheap or expensive?), between the unique original and the mass-produced imitation (“possibly made by the Memphis Design Collective”), between the aesthetic and the utilitarian (is the breadbox-ice bucket really an objet d’art? is the glue gun meant to be used for home repairs or to be appreciated for its symbolic mix of aggression and adhesiveness?), between the autonomy of art and the bondage of the pragmatic (note how the survival map conflates dire necessity and frivolous uselessness). Especially recommended for those who prefer examples to abstractions, Tama Janowitz’s short course in postmodernism is deceptively lucid.

At the same time, readers who are less than sympathetic to postmodernism may find themselves wishing for a more sharply satirical treatment of this effacement of distinctions. All such readers are likely to see here is current fashion in and around the East Village. For them, even the book’s high media visibility and commercial success may work against it, making it seem an instance of the posturing and hype it depicts. To some extent they are right. Like a piece of performance art, the book might be said to put the art milieu itself on display—that is, up for sale—as no less a commodity than any it contains. This milieu is dedicated to the 1980’s. It is a social gaffe, as Eleanor discovers at a party, to ask where someone comes from “originally”; it is a put-down for an artist to be told that his stuff looks like the style of the late 1970’s; cultural memory is so short that one hustler wants to hire John Lennon, William Shakespeare, Giacomo Puccini, and Jimi Hendrix to write an opera. Yet these stories too are devoted to the ephemeral; they allude to clubs, plastics, neighborhoods, and supermarket brand names without mercy for out-of-towners, still less for posterity. Much of the prose is ironic, but this is insufficient defense against the charge of complicity; all the Downtown artists Janowitz is contemplating base their work on at least some nuance of irony. In both cases, the irony sometimes seems no more than a disguise for uncritical enjoyment of trash.

If Janowitz’s subjects cultivate image at the expense of reality, surface at the expense of depth, one might say the same of her own spacy, sophisticated style, which forbids characters from showing signs of development or fictional fragments from cohering into a large whole. The collection almost becomes a novel, but not quite. Characters and experiences return from time to time. A cat named Snowball and a bad case of sun poisoning in Haiti migrate from one story to another; the unnamed woman who objects to questions about her origins comes back as the protagonist of the final story. Eleanor goes from living with her boyfriend, Stash, to living without him. The question of whether there is some greater whole struggling to emerge out of these parts is perhaps only the question of whether the book adopts any clear position toward its material.

Yet it would be a mistake to judge this collection as a realist novel manqué. It has its own unity—the unity of the comic. “I had all the regular human qualities—an unlimited capacity for suffering, and spending money.” “If I ever get some kind of job security and/or marital security, I’m going to join the feminist movement.” Like the naïveté of Charlie Chaplin’s Little Tramp, the narrator’s insistence that she has “no idea” what all this means must be understood as a rhetorical ploy, an act in which she makes herself a hapless victim in order to make her...

(The entire section is 2000 words.)

Form and Content

(Masterpieces of Women's Literature)

The twenty-two stories in Slaves of New York offer various perspectives on the art scene of New York City. Several describe the evolution of the relationship between Eleanor, a struggling jewelry designer, and Stash, her artist boyfriend. Many of the stories share characters, with minor characters in one sometimes acting as protagonists in others. The first and last stories, “Modern Saint #271” and “Kurt and Natasha, a Relationship,” are among the few that are completely independent of the others.

The stories are all vignettes, describing scenes rather than developing plots. Janowitz tells stories because they are interesting, without necessarily having a point to make. Her style is conversational, though she does indulge in some creative metaphors, as when Eleanor, narrating “Physics,” spends a long paragraph comparing her “entropic life” to pizza. In “Matches,” Eleanor treats a party that she gives as a metaphor for her entire life.

All the stories but the last are realistic. In “Kurt and Natasha, a Relationship,” Natasha becomes involved with Kurt, hoping that he can help her in her career. Kurt, a sadist, treats Natasha terribly, sometimes chaining her to the radiator while he goes out and forcing her to cook while nearly naked, even though hot grease splashes on her skin. As she becomes more successful, she literally grows in size while he shrinks. After throwing her out, he finally admits, “I need you,...

(The entire section is 553 words.)


(Masterpieces of Women's Literature)

Slaves of New York was the first collection of stories to be a best-seller since Philip Roth’s Goodbye Columbus (1959). In it, Janowitz offers a hip, satirical look at the New York art scene. Her take on that world is unique in that it emphasizes the role of women. Some of her female characters are heroes; all, as the title of the work implies, are in some way slaves.

The art scene as depicted is dominated by men, though one art dealer is a woman. This perhaps mirrors the larger world of work, in which men are advantaged. In Janowitz’s world, men become famous and women become their girlfriends—if they are lucky. Janowitz offers some hope for women in “You and the Boss,” in which she describes “you” taking the place of Bruce Springsteen’s wife. By the end of the story, however, “you” leave Springsteen and are relieved, presumably because “you” have regained control over “your” life. In contrast, Eleanor struggles through many stories to find markets for her creations, while Stash, her sometime boyfriend, exerts much less effort for far greater gain. Eleanor looks to Stash for advice, assuming that he is more knowledgeable rather than simply luckier. Throughout the stories, women are subservient or in some way inferior to men. If Janowitz presents a message, it is that even in the progressive society of modern art, traditional values prevail.

Janowitz gained fame for this book largely through her...

(The entire section is 410 words.)


(Society and Self, Critical Representations in Literature)

Anshaw, Carol. “Hype Springs Eternal.” The Village Voice 31 (August 5, 1986): 46. Anshaw describes a central idea of Slaves of New York, that boys get to be famous and outrageous, while girls get to be girlfriends if they behave themselves. She notes the one-dimensionality of characters and sees Janowitz as standing outside the action she describes.

DePietro. Thomas. Review of Slaves of New York. The Hudson Review 39 (Autumn, 1986): 489. Describes the work as blurring the distinction between high and low culture. DePietro says that Janowitz’s point in the book is unclear: The tales may be a symptom or a parody of the junk culture she describes.

Kaye, Elizabeth. “Fifteen Minutes Over SoHo.” Esquire 110 (November, 1988): 170-176. Discusses the making of the film version of Slaves of New York as well as Janowitz’s early life and how it affected her writing.

McInerney, Jay. “I’m Successful and You’re Not.” The New York Times Book Review 91 (July 13, 1986): 7. McInerney says that it is possible to be too hip as a writer, suggesting that Janowitz sees things at a distance. He describes her stories as static, with no development: The characters do not acquire knowledge, passion, or hope.

Prince, Dinah. “She’ll Take Manhattan: Tama Janowitz’s Tales for the Eighties.” New York 19 (July 14, 1986): 36-42. A personality profile focusing on Janowitz’s writing process and social world. Contains many quotations from Janowitz. Her social life and connections with Andy Warhol receive significant attention.

Sheppard, R. Z. “Downtown.” Time 127 (June 30, 1986): 80-81. Describes Janowitz’s humor as ranging from adolescent to collegiate and her intentions as satirical and sociological. Complains about the failure to follow through on promising ideas and about odd visceral connections that are difficult for the reader to make.

Sikes, Gini. “How Long Can Tama’s Fifteen Minutes Last?” Mademoiselle 95 (April, 1989): 102-104, 276. Written just before the release of the film version of Slaves of New York. Predicts failure for the film and discusses how Janowitz has kept in the limelight even while failing to find critical acclaim. Describes her self-propelled publicity campaign for the book.