by Kurt Vonnegut Jr.

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Slaughterhouse-Five Summary

Slaughterhouse-Five narrates the experiences of Billy Pilgrim, who drifts through life as a prisoner of war and later, an alien abductee. 

  • Billy serves as a chaplain's assistant during World War II. After being captured by Nazis, he develops the ability to time travel.
  • Billy witnesses the bombing of Dresden and develops PTSD.
  • Years later, Billy is a successful optometrist with a wife and daughter. He is abducted by the Tralfamadorians, an alien race who experience time non-linearly.
  • Back on Earth, Billy attempts to share his knowledge of the Tralfamadorians, but he is assassinated by an old enemy from the war.

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Last Updated June 12, 2023.

"Slaughterhouse-Five" is a novel written by Kurt Vonnegut, an American author, and it was first published in 1969. The book is considered one of Vonnegut's most influential works and a classic of postmodern American literature. Vonnegut was a World War II veteran who experienced the horrific firebombing of Dresden, Germany, firsthand. "Slaughterhouse-Five" is a semi-autobiographical novel that blends elements of science fiction, satire, and war literature.

The story revolves around Billy Pilgrim, a fictional character loosely based on Vonnegut, as he navigates through time and space. The narrative is non-linear, with Billy experiencing his life in a fragmented and disjointed manner due to his belief in "time travel." The novel explores themes of war, trauma, free will, and the absurdity of human existence.

What Happens:
The novel begins with the introduction of Billy Pilgrim, an optometrist in his late thirties who becomes "unstuck in time." He experiences his life in a non-chronological order, jumping back and forth between different moments. Billy is a survivor of the firebombing of Dresden during World War II, an event that profoundly impacts him and the way he sees the world.

Billy recounts his experiences as an American soldier during the war. He is captured by the Germans and sent to Dresden, where he is imprisoned in an underground slaughterhouse turned POW camp known as "Slaughterhouse-Five."

The bombing of Dresden by the Allied forces occurs, resulting in massive destruction and loss of life. Billy and other prisoners of war survive by taking shelter in an underground meat locker.

Throughout the narrative, Billy's life is juxtaposed with his experiences on the planet Tralfamadore, where he is abducted by aliens known as Tralfamadorians. These aliens, who exist in all points of time simultaneously, teach Billy about their perception of time and the inevitability of events. The Tralfamadorians believe that humans are trapped in a time loop, unable to change the past or the future.

Billy's life after the war is explored, including his marriage to Valencia and his career as an optometrist. However, his experiences during the war and his encounters with the Tralfamadorians continue to haunt him. He becomes detached from reality and retreats into his own mind, finding solace in the Tralfamadorian philosophy of accepting life as it is.

The novel also delves into the fictional works of Kilgore Trout, a recurring character in Vonnegut's works. Trout is a science fiction writer whose stories often reflect Vonnegut's own views on war, humanity, and the human condition. Vonnegut uses Trout's works as a means to satirize various aspects of society and critique the absurdity of war and violence.

In the final section, Billy's life comes to an end as he is assassinated by a man named Paul Lazzaro. The novel concludes with the Tralfamadorian perspective, emphasizing the cyclical nature of time and the idea that every moment, including death, is just one part of an eternal existence.

Why it Matters:
"Slaughterhouse-Five" holds a significant place in the canon of Western literature as a groundbreaking and influential work of art. It is regarded as a seminal example of postmodern literature, challenging traditional narrative structures and blurring the boundaries between fact and fiction, and is often considered among the best American novels. Vonnegut's use of nonlinear storytelling and his incorporation of science fiction elements contribute to the novel's unique and innovative style that would prove to be influential for many other authors.

The book is also important for how it explores the devastating effects of war and the trauma experienced by soldiers. Vonnegut draws from his own experiences as a prisoner of war during the bombing of...

(This entire section contains 1210 words.)

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Dresden, providing a deeply personal and powerful account of the horrors of war. "Slaughterhouse-Five" serves as a critique of war and its dehumanizing effects on both individuals and society.

Furthermore, the novel raises philosophical questions about free will, determinism, and the nature of human existence. The alien Tralfamadorian perspective challenges traditional notions of time and offers a provocative examination of fatalism and the human capacity to find meaning in an absurd world.

"Slaughterhouse-Five" is celebrated for its dark humor, biting satire, and profound social commentary. It remains relevant today as it prompts readers to confront the atrocities of war, question societal norms, and reflect on the human condition. The novel's lasting impact on literature and its continued resonance with readers solidify its place as a significant work of art.

More on the main character, Billy Pilgrim: 

Billy Pilgrim, the central character of Slaughterhouse-Five: Or, The Children’s Crusade, a Duty-Dance with Death, undergoes experiences close to those of Kurt Vonnegut as an infantryman taken prisoner in World War II. As Billy is, Vonnegut was sent to Dresden and sheltered underground while the city was firebombed in February, 1945. After the bombing Vonnegut was put to work extracting corpses from the rubble and incinerating them. The experience left a deep impression, and he struggled to write about it, finally doing so in this his sixth and most famous novel. A film adaptation appeared in 1972.

Billy Pilgrim is a chaplain’s assistant who becomes separated from his unit and who, defenseless and half-starved, is captured by the Germans. He is eventually sent to a camp in Dresden, and put to work in a factory until the firestorm created by allied bombing destroys the city. It is during all this that Billy “comes unstuck in time,” his consciousness randomly visiting the future or the past. In those travels he visits the various identities he assumes in his lifetime.

After the war, Billy becomes a prosperous optometrist with a family, but his time travels persist. He also believes aliens from Tralfamadore kidnap him and that he leads another existence there in a Talfamadorian zoo. The Tralfamadorians believe that “whatever is always has been and always will be,” so that an event does not just happen but is always “as it was meant to happen.” Under the influence of this Tralfamadorian philosophy, and of his time-traveling ability to see the future, Billy learns to accept life and becomes a preacher, telling others of his time travels and the Tralfamadorian philosophy.

The novel’s subtitle refers to the exploited children of the Children’s Crusade. There are also allusions to Jesus Christ, especially as an infant destined for a dramatic future, and to Adam and Eve. All, like Billy, are innocents swept up in events beyond their comprehension. These, like the soldiers who were “only babies at the time,” epitomize the plight of humans caught up in events so large that they deny the individual identity.

“There are almost no characters in this story,” Vonnegut writes. “One of the main effects of war, after all, is that people are discouraged from being characters.” In other words, they become helpless pawns in the current of events, robbed of identity. One prisoner struck by a guard asks, “Why me?” “Vy you? Vy anybody,” the guard responds.

Slaughterhouse-Five asks how the individual retains an identity in a seemingly meaningless world swept by huge, controlling events. It asks how people retain a collective human identity so as not to be brutalized by events into overlooking the individual identities of others. Lot’s wife cared enough to look back to the destroyed city of Sodom, and the author loves her for that.


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