Themes and Meanings

(Critical Guide to Poetry for Students)

The meaning of “Skipper Ireson’s Ride” is encapsulated in the refrain, in the central figure’s transformation from “Old Floyd Ireson” in the first stanza to “Poor Floyd Ireson” in the last. During the poem, Ireson changes, or his neighbors’ perception of him changes, from a man to be hated and cursed to one to be treated with scorn yet pity. The theme of a person coming to a new understanding is as old as literature, and often this acquisition of new knowledge or insight involves a journey. The journey might be a protracted one through a long work such as Homer’s The Odyssey or Dante’s The Divine Comedy, or a brief visit from city to country or from country to city, or even a short ride out of town on a rail. The technique of echoing a psychological or moral journey by a literal journey through space is effectively employed here.

For the characters of Whittier’s New England poems, the themes of transformation and redemption, and of error and correction, were best understood in a Christian religious context. The mob of women who have tarred and feathered Skipper Ireson act from the human emotions of grief and rage, and they seek human vengeance. Their method of punishment is to humiliate Ireson, to make him (or show him to be) less than a man. Yet they are not fully human in their own actions; with the exception of the brief mournful passage in stanza 5, they are seen only as a mob, never as individuals.


(The entire section is 544 words.)