Siegfried Sassoon

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Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 258

Siegfried Sassoon (suh-SEWN) is nearly as well known for his prose works as for his poetry. From 1926 to 1945, he spent most of his time working on the two trilogies that form the bulk of his work in prose. The first of these was the three-volume fictionalized autobiography published in 1937 as The Memoirs of George Sherston. It begins in Memoirs of a Fox-Hunting Man (1928), by recounting the life of a well-to-do young country squire in Georgian England up to his first experiences as an officer in World War I. The second volume, Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (1930), and the third, Sherston’s Progress (1936), describe the young man’s war experiences. In the later trilogy, Sassoon discarded the thinly disguised fiction of the Sherston novels and wrote direct autobiography, with a nostalgic look back at his pleasant pastoral life in prewar England in The Old Century and Seven More Years (1938) and The Weald of Youth (1942). In Siegfried’s Journey, 1916-1920 (1945), Sassoon looks again at his own experiences during and immediately following the war. These autobiographical works are invaluable to the student of Sassoon’s poetry because of the context they provide, particularly for the war poems.

Two other significant prose works should be mentioned. The first is Sassoon’s Lecture on Poetry, delivered at the University of Bristol on March 16, 1939, in which Sassoon delineated what he considered to be the elements of good poetry. The second work is Sassoon’s critical biography of the poet George Meredith, titled simply Meredith (1948), which also suggests some of Sassoon’s views on poetry.

Achievements

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According to Bernard Bergonzi, Siegfried Sassoon was the only soldier-poet to be widely read during the war itself. This gave Sassoon a unique opportunity to influence other war poets, which he did. Though his war poetry has been criticized for being mere description, for appealing to only the senses and not the imagination, and for being uncontrolled emotion without artistic restraint, there can be no doubt than Sassoon’s poetry represented a complete break with the war poetry of the past in tone, technique, and subject matter. With uncompromising realism and scathing satire, Sassoon portrayed the sufferings of the front-line soldier and the incompetency of the staff for the express purposes of convincing his readers to protest continuation of the war. His Counter-Attack, and Other Poems was nearly suppressed because of poems such as “The General,” which broke the prohibition against criticizing those in charge of the war effort.

Unquestionably, Sassoon’s realistic subject matter and diction influenced other poets, most notably his friend Wilfred Owen, whose poetry was posthumously published by Sassoon in 1920; but Sassoon failed to influence later poetry because, as John Johnston notes, his war poetry was all negative—he provided no constructive replacement for the myths he had destroyed. Nor did Sassoon influence poetry in the 1930’s because, according to Michael Thorpe, he was still a prisoner of war, and through his autobiographies he retreated from the political struggle of W. H. Auden and Stephen Spender and others into his own earlier years.

When in the 1950’s Sassoon finally did have something positive to offer, no one was willing to listen. He was no longer well known or critically acknowledged. Certainly his future reputation will rest on the war poems; but in his religious poems of the 1950’s, Sassoon did achieve a style of simple expression, compact brevity, and concrete imagery with a universally appealing theme, and this should be noted as a remarkable though largely unrecognized achievement.

Bibliography

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Last Updated on May 6, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Word Count: 411

Bloom, Harold, ed. Poets of World War I: Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2003. Contains numerous essays on Sassoon, covering topics such as realism, satire, and spirituality in his poetry.

Caesar, Adrian. Taking It Like a Man: Suffering, Sexuality, and the War Poets: Brooke, Sassoon, Owen, Graves. New York: Manchester University Press, 1993. Caesar explores how four British poets reconciled their ideologies inherited from Christianity, imperialism, and Romanticism with their experiences of World War I.

Campbell, Patrick. Siegfried Sassoon: A Study of the War Poetry. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1999. Through primary documents and research, Campbell provides critical analyses of Sassoon’s war poetry. Includes bibliographical references and an index.

Egremont, Max. Siegfried Sassoon: A Life. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. This biography of Sassoon examines his life, including his relationship with Stephan Tennant, its breakup, and his subsequent marriage.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. 1975. Reprint. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. This classic study of the literature arising from the experience of fighting in World War I pays special attention to Sassoon’s fiction, autobiography, and poetry. Provides a useful context for Sassoon’s work in comparison to other writers of the period.

Hipp, Daniel. The Poetry of Shell Shock: Wartime Trauma and Healing in Wilfred Owen, Ivor Gurney, and Siegfried Sassoon. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2005. Contains chapters examining the lives and works of three war poets: Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and Ivory Gurney.

Lane, Arthur E. An Adequate Response: The War Poetry of Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1972. Lane highlights the use of satire and parody as he analyzes Sassoon’s war verse. Contends that Sassoon and others, when faced with the horrors of trench warfare, were charged with creating a new mode of expression since the traditional modes proved inadequate.

Moeyes, Paul. Siegfried Sassoon: Scorched Glory—A Critical Study. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997. Moeyes draws on Sassoon’s edited diaries and letters to explore Sassoon’s assertion that his poetry was his real autobiography. Includes bibliography and an index.

Wilson, Jean Moorcroft. Siegfried Sassoon: The Journey from the Trenches—A Biography, 1918-1967. London: Duckworth, 2003. Describes the later years of Sassoon’s life, looking at his life after the war.

_______. Siegfried Sassoon: The Making of a War Poet—A Biography. New York: Routledge, 1999. Details Sassoon’s early life, covering the years from his birth through 1918, and in doing so, closely examines his struggle to come to terms with being gay.

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Critical Essays