The literary elements in Shakespeare's Sonnet 152 work together to establish a tone of outrage that effectively ends the relationship with the "dark woman," who is the subject of the preceding sonnets in this series.
First, the speaker leans not on language of love in this sonnet but on the formal language of law. On one hand, he tries to justify all the feelings he has held for this woman and all the ways he has tried to change her into the woman he desires her to be. Yet his efforts have fallen short; in fact, they have failed each other in this relationship. Thus, he is left weighing out the efforts versus the outcome, judging his own failings—and hers. The language is passionate on the side of this judgement, with the speaker noting that
But why of two oaths’ breach do I accuse thee,
When I break twenty? I am perjur’d most;
For all my vows are oaths but to misuse thee
While he realizes that she has broken oaths to him (a much more formal language than, say, "promises"), he has committed perjury in all his "oaths" that were given only to mislead her. Thus, he removes himself from any form of intimacy through this language.
There is also a pun in the final rhyming couplet, depending on which text you use:
For I have sworn thee fair: more perjured eye,
To swear against the truth so foul a lie.
The "eye" here is sometimes replaced by "I" in other texts, which is worth a note. But in this version, the speaker plays on the word "eye," meaning both that his eyes have deceived him in believing that this lady is fair and that he ("I") is more perjured by testifying to her fairness when it was so clearly a lie.
Also worth noting is the use of end stops in all lines except the first line. Most of these come in the form of visually hard punctuation, such as colons, semicolons, and exclamation points. Thus, the speaker visually pounds his frustration into the lines, demanding that each line of justification be heard and considered, the pause giving time to process the legalities of this relationship.