What are all biotic limiting factors?

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Limiting factors restrict the growth or distribution of a population. There are two different types of limiting factors. Abiotic factors are non-living and include things like wind, sunlight, and pollution. Biotic, then, is a biological, or living, factor that contributes to the way a population is able to grow—or not.

Limiting factors vary depending on the specific needs of any particular population, so I'm not sure it's possible to provide an exhaustive list of all biotic limiting factors for every population possible. Here are some of the most common biotic limiting factors:

Food: Any species must compete for the limited food available in its environment. Not only is any given member of a species competing against its same species for food but is also potentially competing against many other species for that same resource. Consider krill, which are found in the ocean. Blue whales eat krill, but so do leopard seals, some penguins, other fish, and squid. There are a limited number of krill available to consume, so depending on availability, this could prevent some animals from having enough food to survive.

Availability of mates: If animals can't reproduce, the species won't survive. If an illness destroys a population's males or females, the population won't grow.

Disease: Bacteria and viruses can sometimes destroy populations. If a species has no resistance to a particular disease, the death rate may far exceed the birth rate. As a result, the population will shrink.

Predators: Most animals are at risk of being consumed by other animals. If a predator population far exceeds that of the prey, the prey are at risk of being decimated.

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