How to measure the magnetic field of the earth ?

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To measure the Earth's magnetic field, special instruments must be used.  There are two types of such instruments.

First, there are mechanical instruments like the compass.  The compass can tell us where magnetic north is at any given time and place.  This can help us measure the declination of the magnetic field.

Second, there are non-mechanical instruments like magnetometers.  These can measure things such as the strength of the magnetic field.

By using both of these kinds of instruments, we can find the direction and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field.

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http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/ES304/MODULES/MAG/NOTES/instover.html

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