How does conduction takes place in solids, liquids, and gases?


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Conduction is the transfer of heat energy that occurs between two objects that are touching. Thus, conduction occurs between the particles of solids, liquids, and gases that collide into one another.

During conduction, heat will always transfer from the hotter to the colder object. Temperature is a reflection of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance. During conduction, the warmer and faster particles collide into cooler and slower particles. When this occurs, energy is moved from the warmer particles that have more energy to the cooler particles that have less energy. This process continues until the system has reached equilibrium and both objects are the same temperature.

Because the particles of solids are closest to one another and can easily bump into one another, conduction occurs the fastest in solids. Similarly, because the particles of gases are the farthest from one another, conduction is the slowest in solids.

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Why does conduction occur more readily in solids and liquids than in gases?      

Conduction occurs more easily in solids or liquids than it does in gases because the particles within solids and liquids are closer together than the particles within a gas.

Conduction is the transfer of heat energy or electricity through particles that are touching. The particles of a solid are packed tightly next to one another with little movement. The particles of a liquid are farther apart, but still close enough that they are able to flow past one another.  As the particles of a liquid or solid collide, conduction can occur.

On the other hand, the particles of a gas are spread far apart from one another. The number of collisions between gas particles is much lower than the number of collisions between solid or gas particles. Therefore, conduction does not occur as readily in gases.

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