How to conduct a qualitive analysis and confirm a presence of a compound?

Lithium carbonate is the active ingredient in anti-depression medications. What tests could you conduct to confirm the presence of lithium carbonate, Li2CO3(s), in a tablet?

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Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) can be detected by the reaction with an acid. An example of this reaction would be:

Li2CO3 + HCl = LiCl (aq) + H2CO3

H2CO3 (Carbonic acid) is further transformed into Carbon dioxide and water. The equation would be:

H2CO3 = CO2 + H2O

The complete reaction for the acidification of Li2CO3 can be written as:

Li2CO3 + HCl = CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + LiCl (aq)

Now to test the presence of Li2CO3 in the tablet, production of CO2 gas should be evident. The CO2 gas quickly goes out of the solution once acid is added.

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