Explain how the concept of "super-sisters" can be used in the swarming behavior of honey bees.

Quick answer:

The concept of "super-sisters" can be used in the swarming behavior of honey bees because it is a genetic phenomenon that prompts worker bees to risk their lives to protect their relations. This is why bees are quick to swarm something or someone whenever they feel threatened.

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To explain how the phenomenon of "super-sisters" contributes to the swarming behavior of honey bees, one must dissect how super-sisters are generated, then utilize that information to shed light on their behavioral patterns.

First, super-sisters are worker bees that have DNA that is 75% identical. They are the result of a queen bee and a drone mating. The queen bee has two sets of chromosomes, so the female children she produces will share 25% identical DNA on their maternal side. The drone has only one set of chromosomes, so his female offspring will share 50% identical DNA on their paternal side. In total, the daughters will share 75% identical DNA between them, making them related to a great extent.

Second, because super-sisters are so closely related, they exhibit selfless and self-sacrificing behaviors. A super-sister will forfeit her chance at reproduction to take care of her fellow super-sister. Some will die to protect their sisters. They will exhaust themselves so that their sisters have sustenance; such exhaustion can kill them. They will sting any animal that threatens the safety of their sisters; this results in death. At any given moment, several groups of super-sisters are present in a colony. The sisters' closeness explains why they will swarm anyone or anything that compromises their health and well-being.

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