Analyze how different factors affect the rate and yield of an industrial reaction.

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The collision theory states that a reaction occurs when the collision between molecules cause old bonds to break and new bonds to form. However, the collisions must occur with enough energy, known as the activation energy, and in the correct orientation in order to lead to the formation of a new product. 

 Therefore, factors that cause the number of collisions between particles to increase should increase the rate of a reaction. The following are such factors:

  • An increase in temperature
  • An increase in pressure
  • An increase in the amount of reactant
  • The implementation of a catalyst
  • Breaking solid reactants into smaller pieces

Applying either of the aforementioned factors will initially increase the rate and yield of product. However, as the reactants (or catalyst) are used up, the rate and yield of the reaction will begin to flatten out. Once all the reactants have been used, the reaction will no longer be able to move in the forward direction and new product formation will stop.

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