Ruth Prawer Jhabvala has lived her life as an expatriate—in England, India, and America—and consciousness of this fact has shaped her fiction. Having spent twenty-five years in India and having produced the bulk of her novels, short stories, and film scripts there, it is her personal experience of the East-West encounter that has molded her work. Her observations of Indian life have provided most of her fictional material. Jhabvala has shown particular interest in tracing interactions between Indians and Westerners in various kinds of relationships. Her writing is marked by details of Indian life that only an outsider would notice and remember; this bestows on her fiction a unique character and vision.