Which character in R.U.R. undergoes the most change, and how?

Quick answer:

The character who changes the most in R.U.R. is Mr. Alquist. When the play begins, he is anti-robot in that he questions the ethics and possible consequences of profiting from the their use and manufacture. By the play's end, as the only naturally-born human left alive, he commits to helping the robots who have become human begin to re-establish the species. Helen and Dobin, who are killed, also change significantly.

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Karel Çapek presents numerous characters who undergo significant changes in in R.U.R. Mr. Alquist changes the most profoundly. He begins as a man deeply entrenched in traditional ways and, in his role in the Rossom manufacturing plant, sees the robots as work machines. His concerns about the ethics of making so many machines prove correct, though the negative effects exceed even his expectations. Ironically, the revolutionary robots who kill the humans spare him, not out of compassion but to punish him. He ends up believing in the humanity of the two humanized robots, and commits to supporting their cause of starting to repopulate the planet.

Some readers may see more evidence of change within characters who do not survive to the very end.One could argue that the fact that they are all killed indicates equal change for them all, from alive to dead. Nevertheless, Helena Glory (the human original) and Harry Dobin also change in major ways. While still alive, Dobin changes considerably as a result of his association, and subsequent marriage, to Helen. He does not originally believe that robots do, or could ever, have souls. Helen is forced to accept her possible error. Having a soul is not a complete benefit, as the robots learn to hate the humans who had oppressed them.

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